Sunday, May 24, 2020
Over the course of the novel, The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, multiple debatable topics have risen. Does Meursault have a heart? Is he an existentialist? Why does he seem to not be phased by his mother dying? This novel is definitely on the more controversial side, which is somewhat strange because although it seems like a novel about almost nothing, everything seems to have a much deeper meaning than it puts off. However, one topic that seems to be overlooked is the fact that The Stranger relates highly to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Meursault throughout the novel is constantly influenced by the people he associates himself with such as Raymond, Marie, Masson and more. His actions and habits can hit home with many troubled millennials. Although most of what people like to call Ã¢â¬Å"peer pressureÃ¢â¬ involves drug use, which this novel lacks, other issues and simply the idea of being influenced by someone to do something reckless are seen that can relate to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth . Meursault shows countless times that he is very vulnerable to being influenced by the people around him, for the most part, his friend Raymond, and along with some of his actions, this seem to ultimately lead to his demise, which can very much relate to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s younger generation that deal with peer pressure everyday. By definition, peer pressure is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"social pressure by members of one s peer group to take a certain action, adopt certain values, or otherwise conform in order to be acceptedÃ¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedThe Stranger By Albert Camus1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Stranger Ã¢â¬Å"The Stranger,Ã¢â¬ written by the Algerian writer Albert Camus, is a novel about Meursault, a character whoÃ¢â¬â¢s different and even threatening views on life take him to pay the highest price a person can pay: his life. This was CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ first novel written in the early 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, in France, and it reflects the authors belief that there is no meaning in life and it is absurd for humans to try to find it places like religion. The main themes of the novel are irrationality of the universe and theRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Albert Camus said, Ã¢â¬Å"Basically, at the very bottom of life, which seduces us all, there is only absurdity, and more absurdity. And maybe that s what gives us our joy for living, because the only thing that can defeat absurdity is lucidity.Ã¢â¬ In other terms, Camus is indicating that absurdity affects us all even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s hidden all the way on the bottom, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the joy that comes from absurdity that makes us take risks and live freely without any thought or focus. Camus also specifies that the onlyRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, encompasses contemporary philosophies of existentialism and absurdism. Existentialist and absurdist philosophies entail principles regarding that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is not based on nature or culture, but rather by sole existence. The role of minor characters in The Stranger helps to present CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose to convey absurdist and existentialist principles. The characters of Salamano and Marie are utilized in order to contrast the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about contemporaryRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus720 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAlbert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ portrayal of the emotional being of the main character in The Stranger is an indirect display of his own personal distress. The use of symbolism and irony presented throughout this novel is comparable with the quest for such that death itself would be nonetheless happy. CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ irrational concept is based off the exclusion of any logical reasoning behind the events in the text. MeursaultÃ¢â¬â¢s first impression given to the reader is that of ignorance and a nonchalant behavior to indifferenceRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbsurdism is a philosophy based on the belief that the universe is irrational and meaningless and that the search for order brings the individual into conflict with the universe. Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger is often termed an absurdist novel because it contains the elements of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical notion of absurdity. Mersault, the protagonist, is an absurd hero that is emotionally detached and indifferent form society. Neither the external world in which Meursault lives nor the internal worldRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Stranger was written by the French author Albert Camus, and was first published in 1942 in its indigenous French. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s described as being the most widely-read French novel of the twentieth century, and has sold milli ons of copies in Britain and the United States alone. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s known by two titles; the other being The Outsider. The backstory to this is very interesting but, more importantly, the subtle difference in meaning between titles suggests certain resultant translative idiosyncrasies whenRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlbert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬Å"The StrangerÃ¢â¬ revolves around a young man estranged from society. This man, Monsieur Meursault, lives the majority of his life fulfilling his own physical needs and social obligations, but has little emotional connection to the world around him. Throughout the book Meursault attends his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, begins a serious relationship with his former co-worker Marie, kills a man without motive, goes through trial, and is sentenced for execution. His lack of emotional responseRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus1115 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger, by Albert Camus, the point lessness of life and existence is exposed through the illustration of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s absurdist world view. The novel tells the story of an emotionally detached, amoral young man named Meursault. Meursault shows us how important it is to start thinking and analyzing the events that happen in our lives. He does this by developing the theme of conflicts within society. Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger portrays Meursault, the main character, as a staticRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout The Stranger, Albert Camus uses routinesituations to demonstrate how the protagonist, Meursault is not just another ordinary individual. Camus depicts Meursault as an independent being, disinterested in his surroundings, contrasting him with the majority of his peers. Meursault traverses the entire novel, exhibiting little to no emotion. Instead, he displayscharacteristics synonymous to someone suffering from psychopathy. Regardless of the situation, Meursa ult refrainsfrom assigning meaningRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger by Albert Camus there are three major themes established by the main character, Meursault. His detachment from his emotions and him essentially being a sociopath setÃ¢â¬â¢s a major tone for the novel. In The Stranger, the major themes introduced are Isolation, The Meaninglessness of Human Existence, and Lack of Human Emotions. These are the three most major because itÃ¢â¬â¢s all surrounding the main character, Meursault and these themes provide similarities between Lord of the Flies
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Jennifer Vo Professor Worley ARTS 1303 29 December 2014 Art Museum Essay Assignment Among the many artworks I have seen, I decided to discuss about the Ã¢â¬Å"Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazons (Warrior Women)Ã¢â¬ from the Roman civilization. It was built sometime in between 140 A.D. to 170 A.D and is approximately forty and a half inches in length, ninety-one and a half inches in width, and fifty and a half inches tall in height (Ã¢â¬Å"Roman SarcophagusÃ¢â¬ ). This masterpiece appealed to me because of the unique approach that has been designed to honor the deceased. Many people are familiar with the formatting and inscriptions of a gravestone because it is usually engraved with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s full name, birth date, and death date. During the Roman Empire, a sarcophagus, which is a coffin, was widely used to show decorative themes that includes: battle scenes, hunting scenes, weddings, or other memorable episodes from the life of the deceased individual. The most luxurious ones were made from marble surrounded by symbolic scul ptures, figures and inscriptions on all four sides (Ã¢â¬Å"SarcophagusÃ¢â¬ ). Another feature that captured my attention was the large quantity of details used to bring out a lifelike aspect of the deceased individualÃ¢â¬â¢s favorable moments in their life. In this artwork, this sarcophagus was dedicated to a Roman commander. The exterior of the sarcophagus has been well-decorated and carved with exquisite details depicting a battle sceneShow MoreRelatedThe Museum Of Art Exhibitions1753 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLast week I decided to visit one of the most well-known art exhibitions in Dallas. As I entered the Dallas Museum of Art I was immediately captivated by the striking and vivid acrylic mural on the walls created by Nicolas Party entitled Pathway. Party said to have worked on-site at the exhibit for three weeks to transform the Museum s central pathway into a mesmerizing, lively colored forest; it was such a contrast to the rest of the exhibitÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance. Straight ahead was the Nancy and Tim HanleyRead MoreMuseum Of Modern Art ( Moma ) : Soundings Exhibition2121 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages3. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA): Soundings Exhibition Soundings is an interactive website from the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) where users contribute to the exhibition by uploading their own content. It features an interactive map (fig. 10) for users to upload their own soundbites to specific locations around the world. This interactivity adds a collaborative element to the Soundings exhibition, allowing the user to make the exhibition more personal and to participate in the process of meaning-makingRead MoreThe Korean Art Exhibition At The Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConfucianism and Buddhism have been most influential in ancient Korea prior to the onset of Japanese colonialism. The Korean Art Exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art showed multiple ritual objects such as incense burners and ritual bottles (kundika) used in Buddhist practices during the KoryÃ period, suggesting that the religion was prevalent during that time. The museum also displayed a wooden tablet (wonpae) used in the C hosÃ n period for Buddhist rituals; however, the exhibit did not forgetRead MoreThe Tampa Museum Of Art1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFor this project, I chose the Tampa Museum of Art. My daughter Annabelle, who is eleven, accompanied me. She is an aspiring young artist who loves to paint and assemble collages. This paper will describe our trip, the museumÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, and what was on exhibit. After which, I will choose two works of art and preform an analysis on them. I will employ the formal elements and the principles of design to engage the first piece, Ã¢â¬Å"The Great JourneyÃ¢â¬ . With my second choice Ã¢â¬Å"A Group of Cubans whoRead MoreThe Della Robbia Exhibition At The Boston Museum Of Fine Arts1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI was lucky enough to be able to visit the Della Robbia exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts twice this semester. This was one of the first major exhibitions for Della Robbia in the United States. The Della Robbia series began with Luca della Robbia in the 15th century, and this exhibition showcased 46 works of his family and associated workshops. The exhibition itself was breathtaking and unique. The creamy, white gazed terracotta statues and displays were breathtaking and unique in theirRead MoreEssay about Two Exhibitions on View at The Museum of Contemporary Art1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Museum of Contemporary Art currently has two exhibitions on view; one is called Ã¢â¬Å"Dirge: Reflections on [Life and] Death,Ã¢â¬ and the other is Ã¢â¬Å"Sara VanDerBeek.Ã¢â¬ One work of art that stood out the most to me was Epitaph from 2011 by Pedro Reyes. Reyes works are often meant to physically engage his viewers in order to shift their social and emotional expectations. The Epitaph invites his viewers to imagine a future in which they no longer exist, and then create a short message that conveys the lifeRead More Comparing the Websites of Frist and the National Gallery of Art1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArt galleries and museums are buildings or spaces used exclusively for the exhibition and education of art, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not all. Galleries and museums are an essential part of our society. Art in itself transcends cultural diversity and differences; the museums and galleries that display art present to us insight into the various cultures, backgrounds, and communities in an unprejudiced environment. They also provide a significant impact on local and state economics. According to the 2007 AmericansRead MoreThe Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa trip to the Los Angeles County Museum. However, I was trapped with the challenging choice of choosing only one museum for my cultural visit. Since, there are so many prodigious and amazing museums to choose from to visit in the county. But, I have heard many great feedbacks about the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from fellow classes mates, friends and family. So, I finally, had my destination set to and planne d a visit to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Upon my visit my attention was alreadyRead MoreThe Museum Of Contemporary Art Cleveland1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEuclid Avenue to the east, visitors will enjoy the various buildings in Cleveland. From the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to the Tower City, to the University Circle, where there are many of amazing museums. No matter the famous Cleveland museum of art or Natural History Museum. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, is undoubtedly a unique one. During the day, pedestrians and passersby see themselves reflected in the surface. As dusk sets in the building s interior reveals itself and guests get clearRead MoreAppreciation Of A Novel By Barbara Kruger1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAppreciation of art is like the appreciation of a novel. One may read a title of a novel and be amazed and curios but will never appreciate it fully if the novel is not read from cover to cover. For any piece of art, one needs to learn about the art ist, the story behind the piece and the purpose of the piece. In addition to learning about the work, as a woman, I find myself leaning more towards the appreciation of the work of women artists who use their talent and skills to express themselves and/or
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The American population of disabled workers previously had no protection of their employment or mandates pressed upon their employer to provide necessary work accommodations, to protect their livelihood, until the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The Americans with Disabilities Act is a civil rights law that prohibits employers to discriminate based on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s disability. This paper will demonstrate the components of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as well as provide relevant United States Supreme Court cases set out between employee and employer where the law was challenged or upheld. We will write a custom essay sample on Americans with Disability Act of 1990 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is an Act set out to Ã¢â¬Å"establish a clear and comprehensive prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disabilityÃ¢â¬ (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The Act was introduced to the Senate by Senator Tom Harkins on May 9, 1989. The Act was passed by the Senate on September 7, 1989 by a vote of 76-8 and passed by a unanimous voice vote before the House of Representatives on May 22, 1990. The Act was enacted by the 101st United States Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on July 26, 1990 (Americans with disabilities, 1990). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability Under the American with Disabilities Act the term Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ refers to a Ã¢â¬Å"physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activityÃ¢â¬ (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case between Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams was presented to the United States Supreme Court on November 7, 2001. The case primarily questioned how you determine whether an individual is substantially limited in the major life activity of performing manual tasks. Under the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s with Disabilities Act of 1990, 104 Stat. 328, 42 U. S. C. 12101 et seq. (1994 ed. And Supp. V), a physical impairment that Ã¢â¬Å"substantially limits one or moreÃ¢â¬ ¦major life activitiesÃ¢â¬ is a Ã¢â¬Å"disability. Ã¢â¬ 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2) (A) (1994 ed. ). Respondent, Ella Williams, claimed to be disabled due to carpal tunnel syndrome and sued, petitioner, her former employer, Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. , for failing to provide accommodations as required under the American with Disabilities Act. Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ] Ella Williams began employment at Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Georgetown, Kentucky, in August of 1990. She was placed on the engine fabrication assembly line, where her duties included work with pneumatic tools. Utilizing these tools over time caused pain in respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, wrists and arms. She was treated by her physician and found to have carpal tunnel syndrome and bilateral tendonitis. Her physician released her to return to work with restrictions that included no lifting more than 20 pounds, she could not lift or carry objects weighing more than 10 pounds, must not engage in constant repetitive motion of the wrists and elbows and no overhead work or performing tasks utilizing vibratory or pneumatic tools. Toyota Motor Manufacturing responded to WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ restrictions, for the next two years, by modifying her job responsibilities within the medical restriction guidelines. Despite this revision, Williams missed work for medical leave and she filed a claim under the Kentucky WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Compensation Act. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann 342. 0011 et seq (1997 and Supp. 2000). The parties settled this claim and Williams returned to work. Williams was still not satisfied with petitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to accommodate her work restrictions and she filed suit against Toyota in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky alleging that petitioner ha d violated the ADA by refusing to accommodate her disability. The suit was settled, and as part of the settlement, respondent was able to return to work in December of 1993. Upon Williams return, Toyota accommodated respondent by placing her in the Quality Control Inspection Operations Department. The teamÃ¢â¬â¢s tasks included (1) Ã¢â¬Å"assembly paintÃ¢â¬ , (2) Ã¢â¬Å"Paint second inspectionÃ¢â¬ ; (3) Ã¢â¬Å"shell body auditÃ¢â¬ ; and (4) Ã¢â¬Å"ED surface repairÃ¢â¬ . Williams was placed on a team that performed only two of these tasks and rotated between the two roles. In assembly paint, Williams would visually inspect painted cars moving slowly down the conveyor and then rotated every other week to the second piece of her role, which was to examine the cars by lifting the hoods and opening the doors. She was able to perform these duties as described. There was a change in workflows in the Department of Quality Control where all employees must rotate between the four tasks of the quality operations. Williams attempted to perform all four duties as required, but began having increased pain, sought medical treatment was diagnosed with myotendonitis bilateral periscapular, inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the shoulder blades and forearms and thoracic outlet syndrome. Williams requested to return to only performing the two components of her position. The parties disagree on what happens next, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ states that Toyota refused her request. Toyota states that the employee began missing work excessively and they were forced to terminate her position for poor attendance. Williams again sued under the Americans with Disability Act of 1990. During the court proceedings and on deposition Williams stated that she was Ã¢â¬Å"disabledÃ¢â¬ as she was no longer able to perform activities of daily living that included (1) manual tasks; (2) housework; (3) gardening; (4) playing with her children; (5) lifting; and (6) working, all of which, she argued, constituted major life activities under the Act. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). Under the ADA the claimant must show that the limitation on the major life activity is substantial 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2)(A). Ã¢â¬Å"Substantially limitsÃ¢â¬ was defined as unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can performÃ¢â¬ . In determining whether an individual is substantially limited i n a major life activity, the regulations instruct that the following factors should be considered: Ã¢â¬Å"the nature and severity of the impairment; the duration or expected duration of the impairment; and the permanent or long term impact, or the expected permanent or long-term impact of or resulting from impairment. 1630. 2(j)(2)(i)-(iii) (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The court concluded on January 8, 2002 that the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s impairments substantially limited her in the Ã¢â¬Å"major life activitiesÃ¢â¬ of performing manual tasks and was found to be Ã¢â¬Å"disabledÃ¢â¬ as defined under the Americans with Disabilities Act, and therefore granted judgment to respondent on the basis that Toyota violated the Act by not accommodating her request as a disabled individual. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability and Direct Threat The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, under Title II, prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities. Public entities must comply with the ADA regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice and includes granting access to all programs and services without disability discrimination. Under the ADA regulations there is also a Ã¢â¬Å"direct threatÃ¢â¬ provision which protects facilities where an individual may pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court Case No. 97-156, Randon Bragdon, Petitioner v. Sidney Abbott, Respondent, poses the question whether asymptomatic HIV infection is a disability under the ADA, and when determining whether an individual with HIV poses a direct threat to a health care provider, should the courts defer to the providers professional judgment [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ] Abbott is infected with HIV, but it had not manifested into the serious stages at the time of the incident. Abbott presented to her dental office and disclosed her HIV infection. Rangdon Bragdon, her dentist, refused to treat her in his office setting and sited his policy on filling cavities on HIV patients. He was willing to treat her in the hospital for no extra charge, but she would be responsible for the hospital bill. She declined and filed suit under the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against any individualÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"on the basis of disability in the Ã¢â¬ ¦enjoyment of theÃ¢â¬ ¦servicesÃ¢â¬ ¦of any place of public accommodation by any person whoÃ¢â¬ ¦operates [such] a place,Ã¢â¬ 42 U. S. C. 2182 (a), but qualifies the prohibition by providing: Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing [herein] shall require an entity to permit an individual to participate in or benefit from theÃ¢â¬ ¦ accommodations of such entity where such individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others,Ã¢â¬ 12182(b)(3) (Americans with Disabilities, 1990). The court ruled in favor of the respondent, Sidney Abbott, on June 25, 1998. E ven though the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s HIV had not progressed to the point of being symptomatic, HIV is a Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ under 12102 (2)(A), that is, Ã¢â¬Å"a physicalÃ¢â¬ ¦impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities. The life activity upon which respondent relies, her ability to reproduce and to bear children, constitutes a Ã¢â¬Å"major life activityÃ¢â¬ under the ADA. In affirming the summary judgment, the court did not cite sufficient material in the record to determine, as a matter of law, that respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s HIV infection posed no direct threat to the health and safety of others. The ADAÃ¢â¬â¢s direct threat provision, 12182 (b)(3), stems from School Bd. Of Nassau Cty v. Arline, 480 U. S. 273, 287. [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ADA Issue: Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an employer to provide reasonable accommodation to qualified individuals with disabilities who are employees or applicants for employment, unless to do so would cause undue hardship. An accommodation is typically any change in the work environment that allows an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities (American with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court case U. S. Airways, Inc. v. Robert Barnett poses the question under Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable AccommodationÃ¢â¬ , when an employee with a disability seeks reassignment as an accommodation under the ADA, does the employees right to reasonable accommodation trump another employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s seniority rights when the employer has a seniority system. Robert Barnett, respondent, obtained a back injury when he was a cargo handler for petitioner, US Airways, Inc. Following the injury, he transferred to the mailroom, which was less physically demanding. The mailroom position later became open to a senior-based employee bidding under US Airways seniority system. US Airways gave the position to the most senior employee, refused Robert BarnettÃ¢â¬â¢s request to accommodate his disability, and Barnett lost his job. Robert Barnett sued US Airways, Inc. under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits an employer from discriminating against an employee with a Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ who with Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodations can perform the essential job functions, 42 U. S. C. 2112(a) and (b), unless the employer Ã¢â¬Å"can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of [its] businessÃ¢â¬ , 1211(b)(5)(A) (Americans with disability, 1990). US Airways presented that their seniority system had been in place for decades and governs over 14,000 US Airways agents and the policy would trump all other requests. They had been consistent with the usage of the seniority system and allowing any other rationale to alter the policy would cause undue hardship to both the company and the non-disabled employees. The court ruled on April 29, 2002 in favor of US Airways and stated that undermining seniority systems would cause a undue hardship on employers [US Airways v. Barnett, 535 US 394 (2002)]. ADA Issue: Scope of Title III Under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an entity operating Ã¢â¬Å"public accommodationsÃ¢â¬ to make Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable modificationsÃ¢â¬ in its policies to accommodate when necessary disabled individuals, unless the entity can demonstrate that making such modifications would alter the nature of their operations, 12182(b)(2)(A)(ii), (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case, PGA Tour, Inc v. Casey Martin tests the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 and questions whether Title III of the ADA protects access to professional golf tournaments by qualified entrant with a disability; and whether a contestant with a disability may be denied the use of a golf cart because it would fundamentally alter the nature of the tournament to allow him to ride when all other contestants must walk. Casey Martin, respondent, suffers from a degenerative circulatory disorder that prevents him from walking long distances on the golf course. When Martin became a professional golfer he posed a request, which was supported by medical documentation, that while in tournaments he be accommodated by utilizing a golf cart. Petitioner, PGA Tour, Inc. refused and respondent filed suit under Title III of the ADA. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Martin in a 7-2 decision on May 29, 2001. The Supreme Court found that the PGA Tour should be viewed as a commercial enterprise operating in the entertainment industry and not as a private club. In addition, Martin should be provided a golf cart to utilize as a means of reasonable accommodations [PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin, 984 F. Supp. 1320 (2001). ] The Americans with Disability Act of 1990 has brought valuable protection and necessary accommodations to employees and applicants that otherwise may have been faced with discrimination, which was the principal goal of the legislation. The act has been instrumental in providing access to public programs and services that may have not been available to disabled Americans previous to the inception of the ADA. The ADA makes it possible for everyone to be treated as equals and prevents unethical discriminatory behaviors from being placed upon those individuals that suffer from disabilities. How to cite Americans with Disability Act of 1990, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Control Mechanisms at Boeing Controlling is an extremely important function of management. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s use control to ensure that goals are met and to make the necessary changes if they are not. Several control mechanisms exist. Managers within companies use the mechanisms to achieve results. This paper will identify, compare, and contrast four of these control mechanisms as they relate to Boeing. It will determine the effectiveness of these control mechanisms, the positive and negative reactions within the company, and how these controls affect the four functions of management at Boeing. Four Control Mechanisms Control mechanisms, whatever their type, exist for the same reasons and same goals in mind: to increase employee production and performance, and to increase the sales, production, and profitability of a company. However, each control works in a different way to achieve these outcomes. Boeing uses many control mechanisms to regulate performance and increase production and profitability. We will write a custom essay sample on Control Mechanisms at Boeing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Bureaucratic Bureaucratic controls use rules and regulations paired with close supervision to regulate performance. These control systems are designed to measure performance by setting standards, measuring progress and performance, comparing the performance to standards, and correcting mistakes while reinforcing successes (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing utilizes the bureaucratic control mechanism by monitoring the performance standards of the operations. Boeing and its competitor Airbus have been finding ways to expedite production and reduce cost. Boeing is working on speeding up production, and raising fuel efficiency of the 787 Dreamliner (Bateman Snell, 2008). Their airplanes are put through many tests to measure the production and efficiency against the standards. Concurrent Control According to Bateman and Snell (2008), concurrent control is a form of bureaucratic control that Ã¢â¬Å"takes place while plans are carried outÃ¢â¬ (Concurrent control, para. 1). The vision of Boeing was to increase customer knowledge, understand, anticipate, and responding to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs could be met in a timely manner. To meet these demands Boeing invests on the expansion of technical systems that assist in the integration of production. Boeing also cut cost by eliminating overhead on parts, and outsourcing. Production times have decreased while quality standards have increased (Boeing, 2011). Boeing uses concurrent controls to achieve these standards. Market Control Market controls differ from the bureaucratic controls in that market controls use economic forces and pricing mechanisms in controlling performance rather than performance standards (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing met with auto manufacturers to see how they could streamline the factories to make them more cost-efficient and more competitive in the airline market. The company overhauled factories and added individual parts bins that are more accessible and easier to manage. Boeing also reviewed auto maker assembly lines and matched those to increase production of planes by using moving lines (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing uses market controls to measure competitor performance and implement their own cost saving strategies. Clan Control Clan control goes beyond the use of bureaucratic and market controls and gives employees the power to make decisions and give suggestions while encourages correct and ethical behavior. The corporate management team at Boeing implemented into the hiring policy the importance of employees working together. The company encourages employees to share ideas and knowledge (Boeing, 2011). Boeing recognizes the need for employee input at all levels within the organization. Effect of Control Mechanisms The effectiveness of these mechanisms depends on how well they companies implement and monitor them. Employees may have both positive and negative reactions to the control mechanisms used. Control mechanisms will not only have an effect on the performance of the company and the emotions of employees, but also will affect each of the four functions of management. Effectiveness The bureaucratic mechanisms used by Boeing are productive and successful. Implementing tools such as employee incentive programs has a positive effect on the 160,000 people Boeing employs around the world. Exploring ideas for employees to contribute to the success of Boeing has boosted morale. The Mighty Students (2011) website state that the market control mechanisms that Boeing has put into place help Boeing strategize ways to capitalize on opportunities in the market and respond to market threats. Boeing also uses these tools to monitor competitor performance, enabling them to respond quickly changes in performance. The clan control mechanism encourages employees to participate with new ideas for the company and promotes innovative ideas that can help the company advance. Clan control also encourages team effort where everyone works together to achieve company goals. Boeing uses the concurrent control mechanism successfully to concentrate on customer satisfaction. Using concurrent controls to upgrade technology, Boeing achieved above average customer service in a timely manner while cutting costs of production. Positive and Negative Reactions Controls can have both positive and negative reactions. On the positive side an effective control system will amplify potential benefits and curtail dysfunctional behaviors (Bateman Snell, 2008). BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s management has a control system that keeps the lines of communication open between employees and management. Establishing valid performance standards where the system incorporates all measures of performance creates positive reactions to the control mechanisms. Control mechanisms can also create negative reactions and lead to dysfunctional behavior. For control systems to work, management needs to keep in mind how their employees will react. Three responses to control exist: rigid bureaucratic behavior, tactical behavior, and resistance (Bateman Snell, 2008). Control systems are in place to uncover negative behaviors or actions that take place in an organization. Employees may think that their job is uncertain because of such controls. Affect on Management Functions The four functions of management can be seen at Boeing. Boeing goes through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling with all projects that they implement. Control mechanisms influence the planning function for new projects. According to Bateman and Snell (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"planning lays out a framework for the future and, in this sense, provides a blueprint for control. Control systems, in turn, regulate the allocation and use of resources and, in so doing, facilitate the process of the next phases of planningÃ¢â¬ (Chapter 16, p. 574). Through the effectiveness of the controls at Boeing future project planning will be more precise. Through the use of market controls, Boeing can apply cost saving measures from one project and apply them when planning future projects. Bureaucratic controls enable Boeing to leverage the knowledge of time it takes to meet the regulations to establish proper time-lines into new projects. The control mechanisms also affect how Boeing organizes resources. For instance, market controls affect how Boeing organizes their monetary resource among their different budgets. Leading is also affected. Managers can use the control mechanisms in place to encourage their employees to reach goals and achieve company standards. Conclusion Control mechanisms help companies monitor success, attain goals, and implement necessary changes. Several control mechanisms exist. Boeing has implemented control mechanisms successfully within their company.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
A day in the life of a nurse If you ask your favorite nurse what a typical workday is like, you might get a laugh. No day is Ã¢â¬Å"typicalÃ¢â¬ in the healthcare world, with all the different kinds of situations (both emergency and not) that you may be facing on any given shift. But if youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about becoming a nurse, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to think about what to expect on the job. So based on stories of real-life nurses, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s what you might expect to see and do on a typical shift. Nurses can work any time of day, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at a day shiftÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities and tasks for a hospital nurse. The early wake-upMany daytime nursing shifts start early (often by 7 a.m.), so that means the snooze button is not your friend. Exercise, breakfast, coffee, shower- whatever the morning routine is, it may be happening well before the rest of the world is ready to motivate for the day. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re more of a Ã¢â¬Å"saunter in ten minutes late, check your emailÃ¢â¬ kind of person , then nursing might not be the ideal career choice.Checking inA hospital isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like a factory, where one shift ends before another starts and no communication needs to happen. The night nurses and the day nurses are a team, and making sure that patients get seamless care means that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a daily handoff of information at the start of every shift. The day nurse gets intel on what happened overnight, if patients have specific needs, or if thereÃ¢â¬â¢s anything important that the nurse needs to know for his or her shift. This is also a chance for the nurse to read up on any physician notes, examine patient charts, prepare for their roster of patients, and review assignments and instructions. This may include checking email, coordinating schedules for the day with doctors, arranging for particular tests, or setting up equipment. Basically, everything that will keep the shift better organized happens up front.This is also a chance for the nurse to check supplies and in ventory too, to make sure they have enough for a shift. This is especially crucial in the emergency room or intensive care wards, where a high-stress situation could arise at any time and when you least want to run low on basic supplies. Everything the nurse does for a patient is usually noted, updated, and charted right away- you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to risk not making an important note on a patient, then getting sidetracked by something else.Morning roundsA lot can happen between shifts, so much of the morning is spent checking in with each patient (new or existing) and tracking their status. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s common to do bloodwork in the morning, do glucose tests for diabetic patients, take vital signs, etc. Nurses also administer any scheduled medications for their patients during this time. If patients need to be prepped for procedures, itÃ¢â¬â¢ll often happen in the morning.Patients that are ready to be discharged from the hospital are ready for their exit procedures, like getting d octor sign-off, removing IVs or other equipment, processing any last tests (like vital signs or bloodwork to confirm that they can safely be discharged), and educating patients (or their family members) on any follow-up care needs.On these morning rounds, nurses also typically help their patients with daily living tasks, like eating breakfast (for patients who canÃ¢â¬â¢t do it themselves), bathing, going to the bathroom, getting dressed, or walking around.Mid-day/lunchLunchtime for nurses is rarely a set time period. Obviously eating lunch is necessary if you want to keep up your energy, but having the time to do it can be a luxury when youÃ¢â¬â¢re dealing with an endless list of patients who have immediate needs all day. Many nurses grab a quick bite somewhere nearby (either in the hospital or close by) when they can. Lunchtime could be cut short by an emergency or just a bustling schedule. Meal times and personal time during the day are definitely at a premium for nurses, depe nding on the workload and the type of facility where you work. A clinic with set appointments is likely very different from a hospital or urgent care situation, when you could be needed at any time. Strategic food (like something you bring from home and can eat fast if necessary, or food you can grab from the cafeteria) is key.Afternoon roundsMuch like the morning rounds, afternoon rounds are kicked off by a check-in process to see if there are new patients, if patients have been discharged, or if any patentÃ¢â¬â¢s status has changed since the morning. Nurses do a new round of checking in with each patient, reviewing their charts for updates, making notes as necessary, and again- keeping close track of everything happening with his or her patients. Afternoon is also time for a new round of meds being distributed to patients, as well as any follow-up tests or previously scheduled procedures. Nurses help prep the patients as needed.The afternoon might also include visiting hours, so nurses are often tasked with updating family members on a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, educating them about what the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical needs will be once he or she leaves, and answering patient questions.For a post-surgical ward, nurses may also start seeing an influx of patients coming out of surgery and recovery. The nurse follows up with surgeons and physicians as necessary, setting up each patient for his or her next tests, procedures, or milestones. The nurse is also likely to help with things like changing bandages or dressing and ensuring that these post-surgical patients are comfortable.And if thereÃ¢â¬â¢s time in between all of these many tasks, the afternoon may have some chances to catch up on administrative tasks like patient charts, making notes, or email. But like with lunch or personal breaks, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s never really a guarantee that the nurse will have a full chunk of time to sit down and attend to these things.Checking outJust like at the beginning of t he day, the end of the day sees the shift handover process between day nurses and night nurses. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s the nurse-to-nurse download of information, either in person or via detailed notes and patient charts. The day isnÃ¢â¬â¢t over just yet- the nurse needs to make sure that the transition to the next shift goes just as seamlessly as his or her own shift started in the morning so that patients are getting consistent care. That means checking and double-checking the patient information to make sure everythingÃ¢â¬â¢s as accurate and clear as it can be.Before leaving, the nurse may also start prepping for the next dayÃ¢â¬â¢s shift: reviewing appointments, checking email, reviewing assignments. At that point, the nurse gets to leave, only to start the process again in about 12 hours.What a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s day is like can vary in a few different ways. For example, a home nurse will have a different set of tasks than a hospital nurse, who will have a different day than a nurse in a private practice. And no matter what a nurse does and where he or she does it, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always the unpredictability of working in the medical world. You always need to be sharp, and ready for emergencies or urgent needs- patients donÃ¢â¬â¢t care if you were out late last night or if you really just need a mental break for a few minutes to clear your head. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an incredibly demanding field, but can be a highly rewarding one.And if youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about taking on this daily nursing life, we have the tools to help you get started.How to Become a Labor and Delivery NurseThe Complete Stress Management Guide for Nurses14 Things You Need to Know as a New NurseTop 3 Survival Traits of New NursesJob Spotlight: Clinical NurseCreate a Winning Registered Nurse ResumeHow Long Does It Take to Become a Nurse?What You Need to be a Stellar Nurse
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Percentage and Percentile Percentage and Percentile Percentage and Percentile By Maeve Maddox The following paragraph occurred in the denunciation of a certain person in a letter to the editor in my local paper: He has obstructed the most wholesome and necessary programs which provide for the common good, and has awarded massive financial advantages to a small percentile of the rich. This erroneous substitution of the word percentile for percentage merits attention. This is not the first time Ive encountered it. Some speakers and writers may feel that percentile sounds more high class than more ordinary percentage; the word may therefore be in danger of catching on as a genteelism, like disinterested for uninterested. A percentage is a part of a whole expressed in hundredths. It can also mean, as the letter writer intended, an indeterminate part of a number. Merriam-Webster defines percentile as the value of the statistical variable that marks the boundary between any two consecutive intervals in a distribution of 100 intervals each containing one percent of the total population called also centile The College Board site explains the use of percentiles this way: Percentiles compare your scores to those of other students who took the test. Say, for example, your critical reading score is 500. If the national percentile for a score of 500 is 47, then this means you did better than 47 percent of the national group of college-bound seniors. (NOTE: An NPR score reports comparative rank among test-takers, not necessarily mastery of a subject.) The only time to use the word percentile is when talking about statistics. For everything else, theres percentage. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"FoodÃ¢â¬ Yay, Hooray, Woo-hoo and Other AcclamationsHow Do You Pronounce "Often"?
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
International Criminal Law - Essay Example of international crimes is even more complicated because the enforcement of the penal statute is carried out by international bodies against individual persons for acts committed in different countries. Where the international tribunal has jurisdiction, however, it is able to add further definition to a new offense. Such is the case with the crime of genocide. The crime of genocide is a relatively new name for a violent act that had long existed, merely because it has only recently been criminalized. Quigley2 refers to the crime of genocide consisting of forcible acts that are directed against individual members of a group in a way that threatens a group, although closer examination reveals that there are fine points that qualify acts of genocide. Most such atrocities are coincidental to the occurrence of war. In the twentieth century, the earliest such atrocity was in 1915 when Turkey, fearing that its two million Armenian population would side with its enemies, began deporting this population to Syria and Mesopotamia. The deportation was particularly brutal and involved several mass executions, during which several hundred Armenians died, prompting Arnold Toynbee to lament it as Ã¢â¬Å"the murder of a nation.Ã¢â¬ 3 It took another world war and another three decades before the offense of genocide was conceived. The Germans committed such violence against indiscriminate and countless people that Churchill decried it as Ã¢â¬Å"a crime without a nameÃ¢â¬ .4 The term Ã¢â¬Å"genocideÃ¢â¬ was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer who escaped Nazi occupation and worked in Washington war intelligence. The word, as Lemkin himself described, is Ã¢â¬Å"a hybrid consisting of the Greek genes meaning race, nation or tribe; and the Latin cide meaning killing5 (e.g. suicide, homicide). After having chronicled the atrocities of the Third Reich, Lemkin had a circumscribed perspective of what would comprise the offense of genocide. He wrote that: Ã¢â¬Å"Genocide is effected through a