Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Straightforwardness International, 2014 Philippines: A Million New Inspectors About 1 million kid and young lady scouts in Philippines have checked course books and led quality reviews all through the nation. Working connected at the hip with government and non-government organizations, the software engineer demoralizes burglary of course readings and advances long haul straightforwardness in the nation schools. The Department of Education gave an open way to software engineer coordinators, including access to spending data, agreements, and conveyance focuses, just as giving examination locales. We will compose a custom article test on Thoughts for Young Activists or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now Nearby associations and volunteers that incorporate schoolchildren additionally complete the checking Ã¢â¬ including shock reviews Ã¢â¬ during the reading material creation process. The software engineer has demonstrated effective at lessening debasement In the course book dispersion process. India: I Paid a Bribe On www. Freed. Com. Residents can report their encounters of debasement. The site got very nearly 22,500 reports somewhere in the range of 2010 and 2012, some of which were kicked up by the media and brought about captures and feelings. On the flipped, residents can likewise report positive encounters theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve had with fair officials. Solomon Islands: Comics against Corruption The Solomon Islands government, in organization with Transparency Solomon Islands, ran a developer that pre-owned comic-style banners and funny cartoons in papers to expand attention to defilement in the nation. It urged Solomon Islanders to state Ã¢â¬Å"Nap Ana! To defilement by announcing anybody they accept to be engaged with degenerate practices. The comic was coordinated to correspond with International Ann-defilement Day on 9 December. Every comic recounted to the tale of normal Solomon Islanders In ordinary circumstances, and how their lives can be profoundly influenced by apparently straightforward demonstrations of defilement. The battle secured the subjects of pay of f, partiality, abuse of assets and what you can do to stop debasement. The arrangement of against defilement funnies ran in each of the three of Solomon IslandsÃ¢â¬â¢ significant papers Ã¢â¬ and was even accessible as a draw out banner supplement in the Solomon Star. Afghanistan: KabukiÃ¢â¬â¢s Corruption Marathon Afghan youth Atari Equatorial uses long distance races to battle debasement. He considers game to be the most ideal approach to spread mindfulness among Afghan youth, so he composed his first huge long distance race against defilement. The group had the option to assemble around 500 youthful Afghan young men and young ladies In one of KabukiÃ¢â¬â¢s numerous dusty avenues. Their message was noisy and clear: Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t pay or acknowledge bribesÃ¢â¬ . The members didn't run a significant distance, yet an enormous group saw the gathering. Strider likewise included nearby radio broadcasts in his effort helped them pass on their message to a significantly bigger crowd. India: The Ã¢â¬Å"Zero RupeeÃ¢â¬ Movement The Ã¢â¬Å"zero rupeeÃ¢â¬ note was made by an Indian material science educator who was bugged by interminable blackmail requests. He gave out the Ã¢â¬Å"zero rupeeÃ¢â¬ notes as a courteous method of saying Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ to authorities who held out their hands. Imprinted on the note was Ã¢â¬Å"Eliminate Corruption at all levelsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"l guarantee to neither acknowledge nor give a bribeÃ¢â¬ . At the point when a degenerate authority recommends to a resident that they should offer an incentive to complete something, the resident can hand over the Ã¢â¬Å"zero rupeeÃ¢â¬ note and its belongings have grabbed hold. The Indian MONGO fifth Pillar has now conveyed more than 1 million bills in five dialects since 2007. Solomon Islands: Clean Election Pledge A gathering of youthful volunteers set up the Ã¢â¬Å"Clean Election CampaignÃ¢â¬ in the Solomon Islands. Their methodology was to assemble voter vows, each being a guarantee to not participate in degenerate exercises during that yearÃ¢â¬â¢s political race. Their vow states: Ã¢â¬Å"l promise that I will dismiss all pay-offs. I won't acknowledge any bogus guarantees. I won't sell my vote. I won't include myself in any degenerate exercises during, when the races. And furthermore I vow that I will utilize my full still, small voice to settle on my cast a ballot and request that God help me to choose my vote. What's more, I promise that I will just decide in favor of a legitimate pioneer. Ã¢â¬ Kenya: Mapping the Election Jacuzzi is an open-source stage intended to courseware data by means of SMS and internet informing and shows up on an intuitive guide. Spearheaded in Kenya after the drop out of the dangerous 2008 races, the site had 45,000 clients in Kenya giving an account of the two examples of appointive extortion and demonstrations of trustworthiness during the accompanying presidential decisions. Activists propelled the stage to courseware information through Twitter, SMS, Android, email and the web. In excess of 4,500 reports were thrown Ã¢â¬ and an amazing 58 percent of these cases have been confirmed. The discoveries were alluded to by JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s appointive commission and global media. Venezuela: Tweeting the Election Twitter is a basic method to screen decisions with your companions and network. Utilize or make a believable twitter name with the goal that kindred tweeters realize whom to contact for subtleties on political race observing. Plan a washrag so voters tweeting cases of political race misrepresentation are smoothed out (e. #Pomegranate or #Cafeteria). In Venezuela, common society associations met up to get an eyeful of a careful gaze on the national races by means of Twitter. They got tweets Ã¢â¬ including photographs Ã¢â¬ from around the nation to assemble information on political race infringement at the surveying stations through a few prisoner. They got in excess of 1,000 tweets guaranteeing discretionary misrepresentation. These techniques do you believe be the best in managing defilement? Pick two and clarify why. 3. What different procedures do you figure neighborhood individuals could use to manage debasement in their administration? Step by step instructions to refer to Ideas for Young Activists, Papers
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Coordinating learning styles Essay Facilitators utilize diverse learning styles, for example, sound-related, motor, and visual techniques to upgrade each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to get a handle on material the least difficult way that is available. Through research, educators have adjusted many training techniques to take advantage of each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style without distanced different methodologies vital for different students. Sound-related techniques may incorporate discourses, tapes, or auditoria instructional exercises so the understudies can finish their work as they tune in to the facilitatorÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines altogether (Felder and Soloman, p.1). Teachers ought to underline the watchwords during their talks to trigger the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s basic listening abilities. The catchphrases of the discourse should be comparative with their new material, however it must prompt them on the best way to complete the movements too (Family Education, p. 2). As in online instructional exercises, the understudy must have the option to hear the guidelines and spot the directions in real life by motor learning strategies. Motor strategies can remember for hands learning openings, for example, drawing, playing, or composing. A case of this is work out the arrangement of a scientific condition. The understudies figure out how to explain the scientific structure of the condition so as to respond to the inquiry all the more completely (Felder and Soloman, p. 2). Educators can utilize hands-on applications to break the hindrance between the course books and the informationÃ¢â¬â¢s in general target. For example, an electrical designer must utilize their insight in the field so as to work constantly through their coursework. It is essential to allow the understudies to have a total comprehension of what their class material is about through active strategies. Visual guidelines tell understudies the best way to recreate the arrangement for an offered response (Family Education, p. 1). For instance, an understudy must know the rudiments of a scientific conditions in a more, inside and out approach to gain by the verbal (sound-related) and active (working out) parts of the topic. Reference Cited Felder, R. M. what's more, Soloman, B. A. Learning Styles and Strategies. North Carolina State University. Recovered October 25, 2006 from http://www. ncsu. edu/felder-open/ILSdir/styles. htm. Ã¢â¬Å"Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic Learners. Ã¢â¬ (2006). Family Education. Recovered October 25, 2006 from http://school. familyeducation. com/insight/educating strategies/38519. html.
Sunday, August 16, 2020
How to Relieve Stress on Campus For many students here at Illinois, its time to start preparing and studying for our final exams. It can be a stressful time for some as its viewed as a culmination of all that we learned this semester. What I want to remind people is that one test doesnt define you and to take a deep breath. Everythings going to be okay! If the breaths arent necessarily working for you, below Ive outlined some things here at Illinois you can to do relieve some of your stress and worries. Work Out at the ARC: Our state of the art fitness facility, perfectly located on campus by the Ikenberry Commons, has all the equipment and amenities one needs to get some exercise in and relieve some stress. When I go, I usually take advantage of the multiple basketball courts to play a pickup game, or I run on the treadmill and listen to my workout playlist off of Spotify. You can also head over to CRCE, campuss other state of the art workout facility. There is a chance that your residence hall may even have a small workout facility, too! See A Movie at Illinites: The Illini Union hosts countless events throughout the year just for the students. Many Fridays, they show a recent movie that was just in theaters for free for hundreds of students, and they even provide the popcorn. I recommend after a long day of studying at our libraries, you head over to the Illini Union and catch a movie with some friends. Walk Around Krannert Art Museum: Illinois is lucky to have so many opportunities to display art. On campus, theres the Krannert Art Museum, which showcases work from all over the world that students can go to at any time. Take your mind off your studies for a little while and get lost in the art. Whatever your way of relieving stress is, I hope you all stay calm and know youre going to do great on your tests and whatever you do in life. Daniel Class of 2018 Iâm an Advertising major in the College of Media. Iâm from a northwest suburb of Chicago called Buffalo Grove. I chose Illinois because it was the first university in the entire world to offer an Advertising major, which is pretty cool!
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Over the course of the novel, The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, multiple debatable topics have risen. Does Meursault have a heart? Is he an existentialist? Why does he seem to not be phased by his mother dying? This novel is definitely on the more controversial side, which is somewhat strange because although it seems like a novel about almost nothing, everything seems to have a much deeper meaning than it puts off. However, one topic that seems to be overlooked is the fact that The Stranger relates highly to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Meursault throughout the novel is constantly influenced by the people he associates himself with such as Raymond, Marie, Masson and more. His actions and habits can hit home with many troubled millennials. Although most of what people like to call Ã¢â¬Å"peer pressureÃ¢â¬ involves drug use, which this novel lacks, other issues and simply the idea of being influenced by someone to do something reckless are seen that can relate to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth . Meursault shows countless times that he is very vulnerable to being influenced by the people around him, for the most part, his friend Raymond, and along with some of his actions, this seem to ultimately lead to his demise, which can very much relate to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s younger generation that deal with peer pressure everyday. By definition, peer pressure is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"social pressure by members of one s peer group to take a certain action, adopt certain values, or otherwise conform in order to be acceptedÃ¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedThe Stranger By Albert Camus1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Stranger Ã¢â¬Å"The Stranger,Ã¢â¬ written by the Algerian writer Albert Camus, is a novel about Meursault, a character whoÃ¢â¬â¢s different and even threatening views on life take him to pay the highest price a person can pay: his life. This was CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ first novel written in the early 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, in France, and it reflects the authors belief that there is no meaning in life and it is absurd for humans to try to find it places like religion. The main themes of the novel are irrationality of the universe and theRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Albert Camus said, Ã¢â¬Å"Basically, at the very bottom of life, which seduces us all, there is only absurdity, and more absurdity. And maybe that s what gives us our joy for living, because the only thing that can defeat absurdity is lucidity.Ã¢â¬ In other terms, Camus is indicating that absurdity affects us all even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s hidden all the way on the bottom, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the joy that comes from absurdity that makes us take risks and live freely without any thought or focus. Camus also specifies that the onlyRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, encompasses contemporary philosophies of existentialism and absurdism. Existentialist and absurdist philosophies entail principles regarding that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is not based on nature or culture, but rather by sole existence. The role of minor characters in The Stranger helps to present CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose to convey absurdist and existentialist principles. The characters of Salamano and Marie are utilized in order to contrast the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about contemporaryRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus720 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAlbert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ portrayal of the emotional being of the main character in The Stranger is an indirect display of his own personal distress. The use of symbolism and irony presented throughout this novel is comparable with the quest for such that death itself would be nonetheless happy. CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ irrational concept is based off the exclusion of any logical reasoning behind the events in the text. MeursaultÃ¢â¬â¢s first impression given to the reader is that of ignorance and a nonchalant behavior to indifferenceRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbsurdism is a philosophy based on the belief that the universe is irrational and meaningless and that the search for order brings the individual into conflict with the universe. Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger is often termed an absurdist novel because it contains the elements of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical notion of absurdity. Mersault, the protagonist, is an absurd hero that is emotionally detached and indifferent form society. Neither the external world in which Meursault lives nor the internal worldRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Stranger was written by the French author Albert Camus, and was first published in 1942 in its indigenous French. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s described as being the most widely-read French novel of the twentieth century, and has sold milli ons of copies in Britain and the United States alone. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s known by two titles; the other being The Outsider. The backstory to this is very interesting but, more importantly, the subtle difference in meaning between titles suggests certain resultant translative idiosyncrasies whenRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlbert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬Å"The StrangerÃ¢â¬ revolves around a young man estranged from society. This man, Monsieur Meursault, lives the majority of his life fulfilling his own physical needs and social obligations, but has little emotional connection to the world around him. Throughout the book Meursault attends his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, begins a serious relationship with his former co-worker Marie, kills a man without motive, goes through trial, and is sentenced for execution. His lack of emotional responseRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus1115 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger, by Albert Camus, the point lessness of life and existence is exposed through the illustration of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s absurdist world view. The novel tells the story of an emotionally detached, amoral young man named Meursault. Meursault shows us how important it is to start thinking and analyzing the events that happen in our lives. He does this by developing the theme of conflicts within society. Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger portrays Meursault, the main character, as a staticRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout The Stranger, Albert Camus uses routinesituations to demonstrate how the protagonist, Meursault is not just another ordinary individual. Camus depicts Meursault as an independent being, disinterested in his surroundings, contrasting him with the majority of his peers. Meursault traverses the entire novel, exhibiting little to no emotion. Instead, he displayscharacteristics synonymous to someone suffering from psychopathy. Regardless of the situation, Meursa ult refrainsfrom assigning meaningRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger by Albert Camus there are three major themes established by the main character, Meursault. His detachment from his emotions and him essentially being a sociopath setÃ¢â¬â¢s a major tone for the novel. In The Stranger, the major themes introduced are Isolation, The Meaninglessness of Human Existence, and Lack of Human Emotions. These are the three most major because itÃ¢â¬â¢s all surrounding the main character, Meursault and these themes provide similarities between Lord of the Flies
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Jennifer Vo Professor Worley ARTS 1303 29 December 2014 Art Museum Essay Assignment Among the many artworks I have seen, I decided to discuss about the Ã¢â¬Å"Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazons (Warrior Women)Ã¢â¬ from the Roman civilization. It was built sometime in between 140 A.D. to 170 A.D and is approximately forty and a half inches in length, ninety-one and a half inches in width, and fifty and a half inches tall in height (Ã¢â¬Å"Roman SarcophagusÃ¢â¬ ). This masterpiece appealed to me because of the unique approach that has been designed to honor the deceased. Many people are familiar with the formatting and inscriptions of a gravestone because it is usually engraved with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s full name, birth date, and death date. During the Roman Empire, a sarcophagus, which is a coffin, was widely used to show decorative themes that includes: battle scenes, hunting scenes, weddings, or other memorable episodes from the life of the deceased individual. The most luxurious ones were made from marble surrounded by symbolic scul ptures, figures and inscriptions on all four sides (Ã¢â¬Å"SarcophagusÃ¢â¬ ). Another feature that captured my attention was the large quantity of details used to bring out a lifelike aspect of the deceased individualÃ¢â¬â¢s favorable moments in their life. In this artwork, this sarcophagus was dedicated to a Roman commander. The exterior of the sarcophagus has been well-decorated and carved with exquisite details depicting a battle sceneShow MoreRelatedThe Museum Of Art Exhibitions1753 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLast week I decided to visit one of the most well-known art exhibitions in Dallas. As I entered the Dallas Museum of Art I was immediately captivated by the striking and vivid acrylic mural on the walls created by Nicolas Party entitled Pathway. Party said to have worked on-site at the exhibit for three weeks to transform the Museum s central pathway into a mesmerizing, lively colored forest; it was such a contrast to the rest of the exhibitÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance. Straight ahead was the Nancy and Tim HanleyRead MoreMuseum Of Modern Art ( Moma ) : Soundings Exhibition2121 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages3. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA): Soundings Exhibition Soundings is an interactive website from the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) where users contribute to the exhibition by uploading their own content. It features an interactive map (fig. 10) for users to upload their own soundbites to specific locations around the world. This interactivity adds a collaborative element to the Soundings exhibition, allowing the user to make the exhibition more personal and to participate in the process of meaning-makingRead MoreThe Korean Art Exhibition At The Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConfucianism and Buddhism have been most influential in ancient Korea prior to the onset of Japanese colonialism. The Korean Art Exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art showed multiple ritual objects such as incense burners and ritual bottles (kundika) used in Buddhist practices during the KoryÃ period, suggesting that the religion was prevalent during that time. The museum also displayed a wooden tablet (wonpae) used in the C hosÃ n period for Buddhist rituals; however, the exhibit did not forgetRead MoreThe Tampa Museum Of Art1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFor this project, I chose the Tampa Museum of Art. My daughter Annabelle, who is eleven, accompanied me. She is an aspiring young artist who loves to paint and assemble collages. This paper will describe our trip, the museumÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, and what was on exhibit. After which, I will choose two works of art and preform an analysis on them. I will employ the formal elements and the principles of design to engage the first piece, Ã¢â¬Å"The Great JourneyÃ¢â¬ . With my second choice Ã¢â¬Å"A Group of Cubans whoRead MoreThe Della Robbia Exhibition At The Boston Museum Of Fine Arts1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI was lucky enough to be able to visit the Della Robbia exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts twice this semester. This was one of the first major exhibitions for Della Robbia in the United States. The Della Robbia series began with Luca della Robbia in the 15th century, and this exhibition showcased 46 works of his family and associated workshops. The exhibition itself was breathtaking and unique. The creamy, white gazed terracotta statues and displays were breathtaking and unique in theirRead MoreEssay about Two Exhibitions on View at The Museum of Contemporary Art1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Museum of Contemporary Art currently has two exhibitions on view; one is called Ã¢â¬Å"Dirge: Reflections on [Life and] Death,Ã¢â¬ and the other is Ã¢â¬Å"Sara VanDerBeek.Ã¢â¬ One work of art that stood out the most to me was Epitaph from 2011 by Pedro Reyes. Reyes works are often meant to physically engage his viewers in order to shift their social and emotional expectations. The Epitaph invites his viewers to imagine a future in which they no longer exist, and then create a short message that conveys the lifeRead More Comparing the Websites of Frist and the National Gallery of Art1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArt galleries and museums are buildings or spaces used exclusively for the exhibition and education of art, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not all. Galleries and museums are an essential part of our society. Art in itself transcends cultural diversity and differences; the museums and galleries that display art present to us insight into the various cultures, backgrounds, and communities in an unprejudiced environment. They also provide a significant impact on local and state economics. According to the 2007 AmericansRead MoreThe Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa trip to the Los Angeles County Museum. However, I was trapped with the challenging choice of choosing only one museum for my cultural visit. Since, there are so many prodigious and amazing museums to choose from to visit in the county. But, I have heard many great feedbacks about the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from fellow classes mates, friends and family. So, I finally, had my destination set to and planne d a visit to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Upon my visit my attention was alreadyRead MoreThe Museum Of Contemporary Art Cleveland1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEuclid Avenue to the east, visitors will enjoy the various buildings in Cleveland. From the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to the Tower City, to the University Circle, where there are many of amazing museums. No matter the famous Cleveland museum of art or Natural History Museum. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, is undoubtedly a unique one. During the day, pedestrians and passersby see themselves reflected in the surface. As dusk sets in the building s interior reveals itself and guests get clearRead MoreAppreciation Of A Novel By Barbara Kruger1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAppreciation of art is like the appreciation of a novel. One may read a title of a novel and be amazed and curios but will never appreciate it fully if the novel is not read from cover to cover. For any piece of art, one needs to learn about the art ist, the story behind the piece and the purpose of the piece. In addition to learning about the work, as a woman, I find myself leaning more towards the appreciation of the work of women artists who use their talent and skills to express themselves and/or
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The American population of disabled workers previously had no protection of their employment or mandates pressed upon their employer to provide necessary work accommodations, to protect their livelihood, until the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The Americans with Disabilities Act is a civil rights law that prohibits employers to discriminate based on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s disability. This paper will demonstrate the components of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as well as provide relevant United States Supreme Court cases set out between employee and employer where the law was challenged or upheld. We will write a custom essay sample on Americans with Disability Act of 1990 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is an Act set out to Ã¢â¬Å"establish a clear and comprehensive prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disabilityÃ¢â¬ (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The Act was introduced to the Senate by Senator Tom Harkins on May 9, 1989. The Act was passed by the Senate on September 7, 1989 by a vote of 76-8 and passed by a unanimous voice vote before the House of Representatives on May 22, 1990. The Act was enacted by the 101st United States Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on July 26, 1990 (Americans with disabilities, 1990). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability Under the American with Disabilities Act the term Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ refers to a Ã¢â¬Å"physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activityÃ¢â¬ (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case between Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams was presented to the United States Supreme Court on November 7, 2001. The case primarily questioned how you determine whether an individual is substantially limited in the major life activity of performing manual tasks. Under the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s with Disabilities Act of 1990, 104 Stat. 328, 42 U. S. C. 12101 et seq. (1994 ed. And Supp. V), a physical impairment that Ã¢â¬Å"substantially limits one or moreÃ¢â¬ ¦major life activitiesÃ¢â¬ is a Ã¢â¬Å"disability. Ã¢â¬ 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2) (A) (1994 ed. ). Respondent, Ella Williams, claimed to be disabled due to carpal tunnel syndrome and sued, petitioner, her former employer, Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. , for failing to provide accommodations as required under the American with Disabilities Act. Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ] Ella Williams began employment at Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Georgetown, Kentucky, in August of 1990. She was placed on the engine fabrication assembly line, where her duties included work with pneumatic tools. Utilizing these tools over time caused pain in respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, wrists and arms. She was treated by her physician and found to have carpal tunnel syndrome and bilateral tendonitis. Her physician released her to return to work with restrictions that included no lifting more than 20 pounds, she could not lift or carry objects weighing more than 10 pounds, must not engage in constant repetitive motion of the wrists and elbows and no overhead work or performing tasks utilizing vibratory or pneumatic tools. Toyota Motor Manufacturing responded to WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ restrictions, for the next two years, by modifying her job responsibilities within the medical restriction guidelines. Despite this revision, Williams missed work for medical leave and she filed a claim under the Kentucky WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Compensation Act. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann 342. 0011 et seq (1997 and Supp. 2000). The parties settled this claim and Williams returned to work. Williams was still not satisfied with petitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to accommodate her work restrictions and she filed suit against Toyota in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky alleging that petitioner ha d violated the ADA by refusing to accommodate her disability. The suit was settled, and as part of the settlement, respondent was able to return to work in December of 1993. Upon Williams return, Toyota accommodated respondent by placing her in the Quality Control Inspection Operations Department. The teamÃ¢â¬â¢s tasks included (1) Ã¢â¬Å"assembly paintÃ¢â¬ , (2) Ã¢â¬Å"Paint second inspectionÃ¢â¬ ; (3) Ã¢â¬Å"shell body auditÃ¢â¬ ; and (4) Ã¢â¬Å"ED surface repairÃ¢â¬ . Williams was placed on a team that performed only two of these tasks and rotated between the two roles. In assembly paint, Williams would visually inspect painted cars moving slowly down the conveyor and then rotated every other week to the second piece of her role, which was to examine the cars by lifting the hoods and opening the doors. She was able to perform these duties as described. There was a change in workflows in the Department of Quality Control where all employees must rotate between the four tasks of the quality operations. Williams attempted to perform all four duties as required, but began having increased pain, sought medical treatment was diagnosed with myotendonitis bilateral periscapular, inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the shoulder blades and forearms and thoracic outlet syndrome. Williams requested to return to only performing the two components of her position. The parties disagree on what happens next, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ states that Toyota refused her request. Toyota states that the employee began missing work excessively and they were forced to terminate her position for poor attendance. Williams again sued under the Americans with Disability Act of 1990. During the court proceedings and on deposition Williams stated that she was Ã¢â¬Å"disabledÃ¢â¬ as she was no longer able to perform activities of daily living that included (1) manual tasks; (2) housework; (3) gardening; (4) playing with her children; (5) lifting; and (6) working, all of which, she argued, constituted major life activities under the Act. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). Under the ADA the claimant must show that the limitation on the major life activity is substantial 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2)(A). Ã¢â¬Å"Substantially limitsÃ¢â¬ was defined as unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can performÃ¢â¬ . In determining whether an individual is substantially limited i n a major life activity, the regulations instruct that the following factors should be considered: Ã¢â¬Å"the nature and severity of the impairment; the duration or expected duration of the impairment; and the permanent or long term impact, or the expected permanent or long-term impact of or resulting from impairment. 1630. 2(j)(2)(i)-(iii) (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The court concluded on January 8, 2002 that the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s impairments substantially limited her in the Ã¢â¬Å"major life activitiesÃ¢â¬ of performing manual tasks and was found to be Ã¢â¬Å"disabledÃ¢â¬ as defined under the Americans with Disabilities Act, and therefore granted judgment to respondent on the basis that Toyota violated the Act by not accommodating her request as a disabled individual. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability and Direct Threat The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, under Title II, prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities. Public entities must comply with the ADA regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice and includes granting access to all programs and services without disability discrimination. Under the ADA regulations there is also a Ã¢â¬Å"direct threatÃ¢â¬ provision which protects facilities where an individual may pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court Case No. 97-156, Randon Bragdon, Petitioner v. Sidney Abbott, Respondent, poses the question whether asymptomatic HIV infection is a disability under the ADA, and when determining whether an individual with HIV poses a direct threat to a health care provider, should the courts defer to the providers professional judgment [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ] Abbott is infected with HIV, but it had not manifested into the serious stages at the time of the incident. Abbott presented to her dental office and disclosed her HIV infection. Rangdon Bragdon, her dentist, refused to treat her in his office setting and sited his policy on filling cavities on HIV patients. He was willing to treat her in the hospital for no extra charge, but she would be responsible for the hospital bill. She declined and filed suit under the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against any individualÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"on the basis of disability in the Ã¢â¬ ¦enjoyment of theÃ¢â¬ ¦servicesÃ¢â¬ ¦of any place of public accommodation by any person whoÃ¢â¬ ¦operates [such] a place,Ã¢â¬ 42 U. S. C. 2182 (a), but qualifies the prohibition by providing: Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing [herein] shall require an entity to permit an individual to participate in or benefit from theÃ¢â¬ ¦ accommodations of such entity where such individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others,Ã¢â¬ 12182(b)(3) (Americans with Disabilities, 1990). The court ruled in favor of the respondent, Sidney Abbott, on June 25, 1998. E ven though the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s HIV had not progressed to the point of being symptomatic, HIV is a Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ under 12102 (2)(A), that is, Ã¢â¬Å"a physicalÃ¢â¬ ¦impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities. The life activity upon which respondent relies, her ability to reproduce and to bear children, constitutes a Ã¢â¬Å"major life activityÃ¢â¬ under the ADA. In affirming the summary judgment, the court did not cite sufficient material in the record to determine, as a matter of law, that respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s HIV infection posed no direct threat to the health and safety of others. The ADAÃ¢â¬â¢s direct threat provision, 12182 (b)(3), stems from School Bd. Of Nassau Cty v. Arline, 480 U. S. 273, 287. [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ADA Issue: Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an employer to provide reasonable accommodation to qualified individuals with disabilities who are employees or applicants for employment, unless to do so would cause undue hardship. An accommodation is typically any change in the work environment that allows an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities (American with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court case U. S. Airways, Inc. v. Robert Barnett poses the question under Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable AccommodationÃ¢â¬ , when an employee with a disability seeks reassignment as an accommodation under the ADA, does the employees right to reasonable accommodation trump another employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s seniority rights when the employer has a seniority system. Robert Barnett, respondent, obtained a back injury when he was a cargo handler for petitioner, US Airways, Inc. Following the injury, he transferred to the mailroom, which was less physically demanding. The mailroom position later became open to a senior-based employee bidding under US Airways seniority system. US Airways gave the position to the most senior employee, refused Robert BarnettÃ¢â¬â¢s request to accommodate his disability, and Barnett lost his job. Robert Barnett sued US Airways, Inc. under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits an employer from discriminating against an employee with a Ã¢â¬Å"disabilityÃ¢â¬ who with Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodations can perform the essential job functions, 42 U. S. C. 2112(a) and (b), unless the employer Ã¢â¬Å"can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of [its] businessÃ¢â¬ , 1211(b)(5)(A) (Americans with disability, 1990). US Airways presented that their seniority system had been in place for decades and governs over 14,000 US Airways agents and the policy would trump all other requests. They had been consistent with the usage of the seniority system and allowing any other rationale to alter the policy would cause undue hardship to both the company and the non-disabled employees. The court ruled on April 29, 2002 in favor of US Airways and stated that undermining seniority systems would cause a undue hardship on employers [US Airways v. Barnett, 535 US 394 (2002)]. ADA Issue: Scope of Title III Under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an entity operating Ã¢â¬Å"public accommodationsÃ¢â¬ to make Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable modificationsÃ¢â¬ in its policies to accommodate when necessary disabled individuals, unless the entity can demonstrate that making such modifications would alter the nature of their operations, 12182(b)(2)(A)(ii), (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case, PGA Tour, Inc v. Casey Martin tests the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 and questions whether Title III of the ADA protects access to professional golf tournaments by qualified entrant with a disability; and whether a contestant with a disability may be denied the use of a golf cart because it would fundamentally alter the nature of the tournament to allow him to ride when all other contestants must walk. Casey Martin, respondent, suffers from a degenerative circulatory disorder that prevents him from walking long distances on the golf course. When Martin became a professional golfer he posed a request, which was supported by medical documentation, that while in tournaments he be accommodated by utilizing a golf cart. Petitioner, PGA Tour, Inc. refused and respondent filed suit under Title III of the ADA. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Martin in a 7-2 decision on May 29, 2001. The Supreme Court found that the PGA Tour should be viewed as a commercial enterprise operating in the entertainment industry and not as a private club. In addition, Martin should be provided a golf cart to utilize as a means of reasonable accommodations [PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin, 984 F. Supp. 1320 (2001). ] The Americans with Disability Act of 1990 has brought valuable protection and necessary accommodations to employees and applicants that otherwise may have been faced with discrimination, which was the principal goal of the legislation. The act has been instrumental in providing access to public programs and services that may have not been available to disabled Americans previous to the inception of the ADA. The ADA makes it possible for everyone to be treated as equals and prevents unethical discriminatory behaviors from being placed upon those individuals that suffer from disabilities. How to cite Americans with Disability Act of 1990, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Control Mechanisms at Boeing Controlling is an extremely important function of management. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s use control to ensure that goals are met and to make the necessary changes if they are not. Several control mechanisms exist. Managers within companies use the mechanisms to achieve results. This paper will identify, compare, and contrast four of these control mechanisms as they relate to Boeing. It will determine the effectiveness of these control mechanisms, the positive and negative reactions within the company, and how these controls affect the four functions of management at Boeing. Four Control Mechanisms Control mechanisms, whatever their type, exist for the same reasons and same goals in mind: to increase employee production and performance, and to increase the sales, production, and profitability of a company. However, each control works in a different way to achieve these outcomes. Boeing uses many control mechanisms to regulate performance and increase production and profitability. We will write a custom essay sample on Control Mechanisms at Boeing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Bureaucratic Bureaucratic controls use rules and regulations paired with close supervision to regulate performance. These control systems are designed to measure performance by setting standards, measuring progress and performance, comparing the performance to standards, and correcting mistakes while reinforcing successes (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing utilizes the bureaucratic control mechanism by monitoring the performance standards of the operations. Boeing and its competitor Airbus have been finding ways to expedite production and reduce cost. Boeing is working on speeding up production, and raising fuel efficiency of the 787 Dreamliner (Bateman Snell, 2008). Their airplanes are put through many tests to measure the production and efficiency against the standards. Concurrent Control According to Bateman and Snell (2008), concurrent control is a form of bureaucratic control that Ã¢â¬Å"takes place while plans are carried outÃ¢â¬ (Concurrent control, para. 1). The vision of Boeing was to increase customer knowledge, understand, anticipate, and responding to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs could be met in a timely manner. To meet these demands Boeing invests on the expansion of technical systems that assist in the integration of production. Boeing also cut cost by eliminating overhead on parts, and outsourcing. Production times have decreased while quality standards have increased (Boeing, 2011). Boeing uses concurrent controls to achieve these standards. Market Control Market controls differ from the bureaucratic controls in that market controls use economic forces and pricing mechanisms in controlling performance rather than performance standards (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing met with auto manufacturers to see how they could streamline the factories to make them more cost-efficient and more competitive in the airline market. The company overhauled factories and added individual parts bins that are more accessible and easier to manage. Boeing also reviewed auto maker assembly lines and matched those to increase production of planes by using moving lines (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing uses market controls to measure competitor performance and implement their own cost saving strategies. Clan Control Clan control goes beyond the use of bureaucratic and market controls and gives employees the power to make decisions and give suggestions while encourages correct and ethical behavior. The corporate management team at Boeing implemented into the hiring policy the importance of employees working together. The company encourages employees to share ideas and knowledge (Boeing, 2011). Boeing recognizes the need for employee input at all levels within the organization. Effect of Control Mechanisms The effectiveness of these mechanisms depends on how well they companies implement and monitor them. Employees may have both positive and negative reactions to the control mechanisms used. Control mechanisms will not only have an effect on the performance of the company and the emotions of employees, but also will affect each of the four functions of management. Effectiveness The bureaucratic mechanisms used by Boeing are productive and successful. Implementing tools such as employee incentive programs has a positive effect on the 160,000 people Boeing employs around the world. Exploring ideas for employees to contribute to the success of Boeing has boosted morale. The Mighty Students (2011) website state that the market control mechanisms that Boeing has put into place help Boeing strategize ways to capitalize on opportunities in the market and respond to market threats. Boeing also uses these tools to monitor competitor performance, enabling them to respond quickly changes in performance. The clan control mechanism encourages employees to participate with new ideas for the company and promotes innovative ideas that can help the company advance. Clan control also encourages team effort where everyone works together to achieve company goals. Boeing uses the concurrent control mechanism successfully to concentrate on customer satisfaction. Using concurrent controls to upgrade technology, Boeing achieved above average customer service in a timely manner while cutting costs of production. Positive and Negative Reactions Controls can have both positive and negative reactions. On the positive side an effective control system will amplify potential benefits and curtail dysfunctional behaviors (Bateman Snell, 2008). BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s management has a control system that keeps the lines of communication open between employees and management. Establishing valid performance standards where the system incorporates all measures of performance creates positive reactions to the control mechanisms. Control mechanisms can also create negative reactions and lead to dysfunctional behavior. For control systems to work, management needs to keep in mind how their employees will react. Three responses to control exist: rigid bureaucratic behavior, tactical behavior, and resistance (Bateman Snell, 2008). Control systems are in place to uncover negative behaviors or actions that take place in an organization. Employees may think that their job is uncertain because of such controls. Affect on Management Functions The four functions of management can be seen at Boeing. Boeing goes through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling with all projects that they implement. Control mechanisms influence the planning function for new projects. According to Bateman and Snell (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"planning lays out a framework for the future and, in this sense, provides a blueprint for control. Control systems, in turn, regulate the allocation and use of resources and, in so doing, facilitate the process of the next phases of planningÃ¢â¬ (Chapter 16, p. 574). Through the effectiveness of the controls at Boeing future project planning will be more precise. Through the use of market controls, Boeing can apply cost saving measures from one project and apply them when planning future projects. Bureaucratic controls enable Boeing to leverage the knowledge of time it takes to meet the regulations to establish proper time-lines into new projects. The control mechanisms also affect how Boeing organizes resources. For instance, market controls affect how Boeing organizes their monetary resource among their different budgets. Leading is also affected. Managers can use the control mechanisms in place to encourage their employees to reach goals and achieve company standards. Conclusion Control mechanisms help companies monitor success, attain goals, and implement necessary changes. Several control mechanisms exist. Boeing has implemented control mechanisms successfully within their company.