Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Facilities And Lack Of Security For Homeless - 1457 Words

facilities and lack of security for homeless are prevalent in rural areas of Bangladesh. (Bangladesh National Policy Framework for Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality, 2000). Empowerment will expand women’s human and social capabilities, their assets and authority over the assets. According to World Bank (2002) empowerment is the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in. negotiate with, influence, control and hold accountable institutions that affect lives. The capabilities enable women to use assets such as land, house, live-stock, savings and jewelry to increase their well-being. The human capabilities include good health, education, production or other life-enhancing skills. Social capabilities include social belonging, leadership, relations of trust, a sense of identity, values that give meaning to life and the capacity to organize (World Bank, 2002). Indicators of women empowerment Women empowerment was measured quantitatively and qualitatively by many researchers for different purposes in a variety of ways. The indicators and empowerment measures used from late 1990s were always context specific and ‘continent’ specific. The leadership qualities, freedom of mobility, participation in decision making, access to resources and assertiveness are crucial to the empowerment of women. Empowerment is a complex process which occurs over a period of time and only the disempowered can experience empowerment. The freedom of mobility andShow MoreRelatedHomelessness Is A Prevalent And Progressive Issue Within Australia Essay1445 Words   |  6 Pagessusceptible to women and children. The homeless are a hidden minority of people with limited access to government and agency resources. The experiences of homelessness often results in the loss of basic determinants of health such as a substantial home, food or education. The National Health Care facility defines homelessness as more than just ‘sleeping rough’. Contrary to popular belief, homelessness can happen to anymore or more so â€Å"an individual who lacks housing including an individual whose primaryRead MoreHomelessness Among Those with Mental Illness1079 Words   |  5 Pagesbasic needs include essentials such as food, water, clothing and shelter. If these are not met, other needs such as safety, security, belonging, and esteem are unattainable. These hierarchy of needs are not excluded from those who suffer from mental illnesses. Many North American cities are facing an increasing problem with homelessness. Unfortunately nearly one-third of homeless people in the US have severe mental illness (Stuart, 2009, p. 633). These include illnesses such as schizophrenia, majorRead MoreA SOLUTION TO HOMELESSNESS IN CANADA Essay1331 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernment and the general public (Tunstall, 2009) . Predominantly, the homeless are individuals or families with no permanent  residence who also lack the resources or abilities necessary to arrange for their own adequate housing and living (Stearman, 2010). This matter affects a diverse demographic of the Canadian public. In 2003, the Toronto report card on housing and homelessness reported that out of 32,000 people who used homeless shelters, 15% were families, 22% were youths between the ages of fifteenRead MoreMental Health Issues Of The United States1175 Words   |  5 Pagesshadowed problem in the U.S, has affected millions across the nation. In t he United States there are many problems with its mental health service. People with mental disorders are in an inferior area with hospitals being shut down, they usually end up homeless, and sometimes they even end up in prison. Consequently, the U.S pays a large amount of money to go into holding these prisoners who could have been in mental hospitals. In addition to mental hospitals being closed, some people do not receive treatmentRead MoreIssues and Adversities Faced by the Homeless Population in America1060 Words   |  4 PagesHomeless families compose a fraction of the homeless population as they â€Å"represent roughly a third of the homeless population in the United States (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2010), and approximately 1.5 million children—1 in 50 youngsters—are homeless each year in the United States† (p. 389). These homeless families often struggle to find permanent residency as a collective unit. There are several typ es of housing situations available for homeless families such as temporaryRead MoreMental Health Issues Of The United States1177 Words   |  5 Pagesshadowed problem in the U.S, has affected millions across the nation. In the United States, there are many problems with its mental health service. People with mental disorders are in an inferior area with hospitals being shut down, they usually end up homeless, and sometimes they even end up in prison. Consequently, the U.S pays a large amount of money to go into holding these prisoners who could have been in mental hospitals. In addition to mental hospitals being closed, some people do not receive treatmentRead MoreThe City Of Overtown Florida Is Located Northwest Of Downtown1302 Words   |  6 Pagesseen a decline in recent years as it struggles with crime, an increase in the vagrant and homeless population and increase in lower income families in the area. This paper will assess the homeless population in regards to the health ri sk associated with this community. Vunerable Population Overview The community of Overtown has seen in recent years an increase in the homeless population in the area. The homeless population can often be seen wandering the area with their belongings in bags or shoppingRead MoreThe Problem Of Homelessness And Homelessness1562 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness We have already past Stone Age and marched towards the modern where we can see fascinating technology and different invention where cancer can be a cured with different medication but homeless still exists and is on the verge of increasing day by day. We can’t imagine ourselves being lost or not knowing where to go or what to do. Spending every day and night either depending on someone else or finding a shelter where you can have a nap. Waking up with the noises of the cars and otherRead MoreHomelessness Is A Whole Spectrum1453 Words   |  6 Pagesphysiological needs and safety. People experiencing homelessness hardly ever get full meals during the day, or enough sleep during the night. A lot of them also have no kind of safety, whether it be resources, family, or simply a job. Lack of security needs usually results in the lack of stimulation/motivation needs or status needs. These people experiencing homelessness are therefore stuck at the bottom of the pyramid, regardless of how hard they try to climb it (Revich). While homelessness itself is unjustRead MoreHomelessness As Positively Affected by the McKinney Act1436 Words   |  6 Pages This paper will attempt to explain the plight faced by one of the largest, most vulnerable populations in America today: the homeless, and how the McKinney Act has affected it. This out-group faces many hardships and many different policies have been put into place both helping and harming their overall wellbeing.â€Æ' Policies Implemented For Homeless Many social welfare policies have been put into place throughout the course of history to attempt to deal with the ever present problem of homelessness

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

F. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby - 1458 Words

Elly Hunter Mr. Kelly Honors American Literature 12 April 2016 â€Å"The Jazz Age† The iconic novel, The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, utilizes multiple songs throughout the story. â€Å"Fitzgerald’s wok has become automatically identified with an American decade: The Jazz Age (which he named) or the Roaring Twenties or The Boom.† (Fitzgerald, IX). The Twenties was a time full of exploration of alcohol and music and the move from small farms into large cities. â€Å"Since The Great Gatsby is the defining novel of the Twenties, which have become trivialized and vulgarized by people†¦ it was necessary and useful to provide a corrective assessment of that era and Fitzgerald’s response to it† (XI). I personally believe Fitzgerald did just that. The development of Jay Gatsby’s character is all about rebirth and reinvigorating yourself; even if these developments are canards. Nonetheless, the tale of revival is a parallel belief echoed throughout the 1920s and the novel. The Roaring Twenties were a period â€Å"of possibil ities and aspirations† (X) which is an influential theme in The Great Gatsby. â€Å"In ‘Echoes of the Jazz Age’ he wrote: ‘It was an age of miracles, it was an age of art, it was an age of excess, and it was an age of satire’† (X). During a stage of such metamorphosis, one element survives Jay’s coherent love for Daisy. This American classic of romantic literature collaborates beautifully with a playlist of Jazz songs. Also, Fitzgerald regularly mentions songs in the book. F.Show MoreRelatedF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby974 Words   |  4 PagesPoverty in the Valley of Ashes: The Great Gatsby â€Å"This is a valley of ashes- a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and raising smoke and finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air† (Fitzgerald 26). In the novel, â€Å"The Great Gatsby,† the author F. Scott Fitzgerald, mainly depicted lives of the rich and their luxuries but also showed theRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1289 Words   |  6 Pages and many people realized their own version of the American Dream during this period. The American Dream is one that many people want to achieve. However, F. Scott Fitzgerald demonstrates his true feelings about the American Dream in his classic novel, The Great Gatsby. Many characters in this story, such as Daisy and Tom Buchanan, Jay Gatsby, and Jordan Baker, found riches and happiness in materialistic things and people throughout this novel. This is the stereotypical American Dream that is associatedRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby944 Words   |  4 Pages423169 Prompt #4 No Comments Lim [f (x)] - 0 = ∞ ... The Limit as X Approaches Infinity Humans continually search for success. This success surfaces in forms such as fortune, fame, glory, et cetera. The American Dream encapsulates the ideals of the â€Å"New World,† bringing together not only the idea of limitless success, but also its newfound availability and encouragement for embracing the promise land. The Great Gatsby explores the American Dream and â€Å"the actual nature of this dream... the mannerRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1265 Words   |  6 PagesJay Gatsby and His Undying Love for Daisy Buchanan F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby in the midst of the roaring twenties, which was an age full of wealth, parties, and romance. Young people living in the 1920s were centered around wanting to find love so Fitzgerald, along with many other authors during this time period, focused his writing in The Great Gatsby on relationships and affection. Jay Gatsby, one of the main characters in the novel, is a very mysterious man, but there is oneRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1845 Words   |  8 Pages â€Å"You don’t write to say something, you write because you have something to say.† F. Scott Fitzgerald was one of the most remarkable writers of all time during the Jazz Age. He started to reach an accomplishment of success with This Side of Paradise and accomplished it with The Great Gatsby. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels take place back in the early 1900’s; he attempts to communicate knowledge to the elocutionist, in a sophisticated, but humorous way, that making it big is not uncomplicated. FurthermoreRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1720 Words   |  7 Pagesdriving force of evolution in humanity. It allows the aspiration of being able to do astonishing things, and proffers them prosperity in life. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald delves into the American Dream and it’s demise. Fitzgerald focuses on the character of Jay Gatsby to materialize the false image that the American Dream created in the 1920’s. Gatsby is th e protagonist of the novel, and is famous for throwing massive parties regardless of the secret life that he lives. The narrator, Nick CarrawayRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1202 Words   |  5 PagesJay Gatsby and F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald is an acclaimed American author, popularly recognized for his novel The Great Gatsby. In addition to his literary work, Fitzgerald is noted for his unstable personal life. Originally coming from a low-income background, he could not marry the woman that he first loved. Even when he met another woman, he had to acquire wealth to marry her; this drove him to publish his first novel. He married her shortly after. However, a couple years after, heRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1258 Words   |  6 Pages What Killed Gatsby? Love or Greed? To certain people, Gatsby’s death was a cruel and surprising conclusion to The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. But there is still some mystery around the cause of Gatsby’s death. Upon meeting Gatsby for the first time, one can tell that he has an obsession centered around Daisy Buchanan, his old love, and was dead set on getting her back. Gatsby’s obsession with repeating the past is responsible for his death and Gatsby’s greed put him in a grave. FurtherRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1761 Words   |  8 Pagescould be the main focus of people who are going out on their own to create a family. However, F. Scott Fitzgerald took a different route in his most famous novel. Fitzgerald uses his book, The Great Gatsby, to show how the idea of the American Dream is slowly dying in the society he created. Although the American Dream was prevalent during the time The Great Gatsby took place in, F. Scott Fitzgerald went against the social norm of believing in this idea and revolved his novel around the idea ofRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1381 Words   |  6 PagesResearch Paper on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby portrays characterization corresponding with characters’ birthplaces, desires, and determination in order to devise their statuses. The narrator, Nick Carraway, is disparate from others due to the place he grew up which is exemplified when he moves to New York from the Midwest. Tom Buchanan satisfies his desire for love by having women in his life as well as his wife Daisy. Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan

Monday, December 9, 2019

Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe Essay Example For Students

Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe Essay Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe. At the age of twelve Dickens was taken out of school in London, and put to work in a filthy warehouse where he had to stick labels on bottles of boot-black. He was uprooted at the warehouse and was utterly lonely as his father, mother and five siblings were placed in a debtors prison where John Charles Charles Dickens father worked as a clerk. Dickens suppressed this episode for much of his adult life, acknowledging it only in his fiction. It is revisited too, in Great Expectations, when the stupid, clumsy labouring boy Pip goes to London to escape the indignities of the smithy work, only to find himself increasingly implicated in substrate of crime and deprivation, which seem to make his London experience an extended symbolic brooding on the taint first encountered by Dickens himself in the Blacking Warehouse. The setting of Great Expectations is during Victorian England. This is a very important time when many changes were happening in society. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries greatly transformed society and the work ethics. This novel is also, to a certain extent, an autobiography of Charles Dickens life. Great Expectations was certainly one of Charles Dickens greatest critical and popular successes. The story is told as a first person narrative with the main character, Pip, explaining his life and times. Great Expectations is both an absorbing mystery as well as a morality tale. It centers around the story of Pip Phillip Pirrip. Pip is a man that all through his young life tries to better himself because he is ashamed of who he is, and where he came from. When fortune falls in his lap, Pip is forced to realize that money does not make you happy, and that it cannot buy what he wants most, Estellas love. Pip is a poor village boy, his expectations of wealth, and his development through life after an early meeting with the escaped convict Magwich, who he treats kindly despite his fear. Pips unpleasant sister and her humorous and friendly blacksmith husband, Joe, bring him up. Young Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, a now aging woman who has given up on life after being jilted at the altar, and also meets her adopted daughter Estella. Estella is a beautiful girl but seems an empty shell of a person. Cruelly, Miss Havisham has brought up Estella to revenge her own pain and so as Pip falls in love with her she is made to torture him in romance. Aspiring to be a gentleman despite his humble beginnings, Pip seems to achieve the impossible by receiving a fund of wealth from an unknown source and being sent to London with a lawyer, Jaggers. He is employed but eventually loses everything and his love, Estella, marries another. Pip soon learns that his benefactor is Magwich and his future existence is based upon outgrowing the great expectations and returning to Joe. Eventually Pip is reunited with Estella. In Great Expectations, Dickens is interested in what it means to be a gentleman. He explores this theme through three characters, Pip, Joe and Magwich. All three characters are not of a high social position. The social classes in England at this time were immensely divided between the upper class and the working class, which is what Pip, Joe and Magwich belonged to. Joe and Pip lived in the bustling and dirty city of London rather than the calm and scarcely populated countryside. .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .postImageUrl , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:visited , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:active { border:0!important; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:active , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Social services EssayThe novel also clearly shows the strict rules and expectations that governed people in the different classes, especially the higher classes. People from the working class were not supposed to mix with people of the higher classes and the rules they had to live by were strict. Pip is the main character and also the narrator of the story. The very first time we see Pip he is a very small boy and he is in a graveyard. He tells us that he is looking at the graves of his mother, father, brothers and sisters. He goes on to indicate that he never even saw them but forms his impressions of them from their gravestones. Pip is then approached by an escaped convict, Magwich, and is very frightened by this encounter. Dickens describes this fear very accurately. Pip risks his own punishment by stealing food and equipment to help the convict, however, Pip also tells Magwich that he hopes he enjoys the food. This shows signs of kindness and generosity which are both gentlemanly traits. Pips life at home is far from ideal. It is Christmas Eve but the only way Pip appears to observe this is by stirring the pudding all evening until his arm aches. His sister continuously threatens him and Joe with her stick and with tar-water. Pip belongs to a home of very low social class shown by the dialect and lack of education in his home. By the end of Chapter 7, Pip is about to be dragged off to play at Miss Havishams. When arriving at Miss Havishams Satis House Pip meets a young girl who turns out to be Estella, Miss Havishams adopted daughter. Pip sees her and instantly falls in love with her looks, however later on when talks to Estella he learns that Estellas personality is not as pretty as her looks, and that infact she is a cold à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" hearted young girl. Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, who asks him what he thinks of Estella. Pip protects Estellas feelings by whispering into Miss Havishams ear as to what he really thinks of Estella, this is another gentlemanly trait, this shows Pips etiquette. Pip shows gentlemanly traits further on in the story when he is much older. Pip helps Magwich escape from London and tells Magwich that he is going to go with him. However, Magwich and Pip get caught and Magwich ends up being locked up in jail and is sentenced to death. Pip show a gentlemanly trait throughout all of this episode and stays with Magwich till his end. Another character which shows signs of being a true gentleman is Joe, who shows various different gentlemanly traits throughout the story. Joe Gargery is married to Pips sister, Mrs Joe, making him Pips brother-in-law. However, due to the age difference between them and the fact that Pip is an orphan, Joe is more like a father to Pip, and calls him his own son, which shows that he is genuinely fond of Pip. Pip describes Joe as a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow. Pip sister treats Joe almost as badly as she treats Pip himself and Pip claims that he treats Joe as a larger species of child and as no more than Pips equal. However, Joes care and concern for Pip shows the importance of their relationship during Pips unhappy childhood. Apart from his strong relationship with Pip, Joe leads an unhappy life as a poor blacksmith who repeatedly gets threatened by his wife, Mrs Joe. Mrs Joe is a tyrannical sister and mother figure, Mrs. Joe raised Pip from the time his parents died when he was a baby until her accident. .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .postImageUrl , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:visited , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:active { border:0!important; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:active , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Enric Miralles - Time Architecture EssayAbusive and prone to rampages of her temper, she appeared in the beginning to be an almost uncaring but authoritative figure. Being the good hearted man Joe is, he would never hit back at his wife and always tries to protect Pip from her, this is a gentlemanly trait. Joe also stands up for his abusing wife when Orlick is rude to her. When Joe learns that Pip helped the convict, Magwich, by giving him some food and equipment, Joe say that he would not want to see the convict starve, rather than lose his temper with Pip. When Pip gets an apprenticeship and goes to London, Joe goes to visit him. Joe wears his Sunday best, however uncomfortable, just so he doesnt let Pip down. When Joe meets Pip he calls him Mr Pip, even though Pip is younger than him, he does this to show respect. He also wears his Sunday best when he goes to see Miss Havisham. Further on in the story, Joe helps Pip by paying his debts with the savings he was going to use to marry Biddy. He also cares for Pip when he becomes ill, even though Pip has not been good to him. The third character to show gentlemanly traits is Magwich. A convict and Pips benefactor, at different times in the story Magwich is both villain and hero. After the loss of his daughter, Magwich develops affection for the young boy who brings him food, brandy, and a file. Wanting the boy to be all he couldnt be, he devotes his life to making money and giving it to the boy to be a gentleman. Magwich risks his own life so he can see Pip. Magwich shows gentlemanly traits through various different parts throughout the story. When Pip brings Magwich some food and equipment, Magwich thanks him. Magwich works hard and lives a rough life so that he can save enough money to make Pip a gentleman. Also, Magwich doesnt blame Pip when his escape goes wrong, towards the end of the story.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Luca Pacioli free essay sample

Born: 1445 in Sansepolcro, Italy Died: 1517 in Sansepolcro, Italy Luca Pacioli s male parent was Bartolomeo Pacioli, but Pacioli does non look to hold been brought up in his parents house. He lived as a kid with the Befolci household in Sansepolcro which was the town of his birth. This town is really much in the Centre of Italy about 60 kilometers north of the metropolis of Perugia. Equally far as Pacioli was concerned, possibly the most of import characteristic of this little commercial town was the fact that Piero della Francesca had a studio and workshop in there and della Francesca spent rather some clip there despite frequent committees in other towns Although we know small of Pacioli s early life, the speculation that he may hold received at least a portion of his instruction in the studio of della Francesca in Sansepolcro must at least have a strong opportunity of being right. We will write a custom essay sample on Luca Pacioli or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One ground that this seems likely to be true is the extended cognition that Pacioli had of the work of Piero della Francesca and Pacioli s Hagiographas were really strongly influenced by those of Piero. Pacioli moved off from Sansepolcro while he was still a immature chap. He moved to Venice to come in the service of the affluent merchandiser Antonio Rompiansi whose house was in the extremely desirable Giudecca territory of that metropolis. One has to presume that Pacioli was already good educated in basic mathematics from surveies in Sansepolcro and he surely must hold been good educated by and large to hold been chosen as a coach to Rompiansi s three boies. However, Pacioli took the chance to go on his mathematical surveies at a higher degree while in Venice, analyzing mathematics under Domenico Bragadino. During this clip Pacioli gained see both in instruction, from his function as coach, and besides in concern from his function assisting with Rompiansi s personal businesss. It was during his clip in Venice that Pacioli wrote his first work, a book on arithmetic which he dedicated to his employer. This was completed in 1470 likely in the twelvemonth that Rompiansi died. Pacioli surely seemed to cognize all the right people for he left Venice and travelled to Rome where he spent several months populating in the house of Leone Battista Alberti who was secretary in the Papal Chancery. Equally good as being an first-class bookman and mathematician, Alberti was able to supply Pacioli with good spiritual connexions. At this clip Pacioli so studied divinity and, at some clip during the following few old ages, he became a mendicant in the Franciscan Order. In 1477 Pacioli began a life of traveling, disbursement clip at assorted universities learning mathematics, peculiarly arithmetic. He taught at the University of Perugia from 1477 to 1480 and while there he wrote a 2nd work on arithmetic designed for the categories that he was learning. He taught at Zara ( now called Zadar or Jadera in Croatia but at that clip in the Venetian Empire ) and there wrote a 3rd book on arithmetic. None of the three arithmetic texts were published, and merely the one written for the pupils in Perugia has survived. After Zara, Pacioli taught once more at the University of Perugia, so at the University of Naples, so at the University of Rome. Certainly Pacioli go acquainted with the duke of Urbino at some clip during this period. Pope Sixtus IV had made Federico district attorney Montefeltro the duke of Urbino in 1474 and Pacioli seems to hold spent some clip as a coach to Federico s boy Guidobaldo who was to go the last opinion Montefeltro when his male par ent died in 1482. The tribunal at Urbino was a noteworthy Centre of civilization and Pacioli must hold had close contact with it over a figure of old ages. In 1489, after two old ages in Rome, Pacioli returned to his place town of Sansepolcro. Not all went swimmingly for Pacioli in his place town, nevertheless. He had been granted some privileges by the Pope and there was a grade of green-eyed monster among the work forces from the spiritual orders in Sansepolcro. In fact Pacioli was banned from learning at that place in 1491 but the green-eyed monster seemed to be assorted with a regard for his acquisition and scholarship for in 1493 he was invited to prophesy the Lent discourses. During this clip in Sansepolcro, Pacioli worked on one of his most celebrated books the Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita which he dedicated to Guidobaldo, the duke of Urbino. Pacioli travelled to Venice in 1494 to print the Summa. The work gives a sum-up of the mathematics known at that clip although it shows little in the manner of original thoughts. The work surveies arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry and, despite the deficiency of originality, was to supply a footing for the major advancement in mathematics which took topographic point in Europe shortly after this clip. As stated in the Summa was: non addressed to a peculiar subdivision of the community. An encyclopedic work ( 600 pages of close print, in pagination ) written in Italian, it contains a general treatise on theoretical and practical arithmetic ; the elements of algebra ; a tabular array of moneys, weights and steps used in the assorted Italian provinces ; a treatise on double-entry clerking ; and a sum-up of Euclid s geometry. He admitted to holding borrowed freely from Euclid, Boethius, Sacrobosco, Fibonacci, The geometrical portion of Pacioli s Summa is discussed in item in [ 6 ] . The writers write: The geometrical portion of L Pacioli s Summa [ Venice, 1494 ] in Italian is one of the earliest printed mathematical books. Pacioli loosely used Euclid s Elementss, reciting some parts of it. He referred besides to Leonardo of Pisa ( Fibonacci ) . Other interesting facets of the Summa was the fact that it studied games of opportunity. Pacioli studied the job of points, see, although the solution he gave is wrong. Ludovico Sforza was the 2nd boy of Francesco Sforza, who had made himself duke of Milan. When Francesco died in 1466, Ludovico s senior brother Galeazzo Sforza became duke of Mil an. However, Galeazzo was murdered in 1476 and his seven twelvemonth old boy became duke of Milan. Ludovico, after some political machination, became trustee to the immature adult male in 1480. With really generous backing of creative persons and bookmans, Ludovico Sforza set about doing his tribunal in Milan the finest in the whole of Europe. In 1482 Leonardo district attorney Vinci entered Ludovico s service as a tribunal painter and applied scientist. In 1494 Ludovico became the duke of Milan and, around 1496, Pacioli was invited by Ludovico to travel to Milan to learn mathematics at Ludovico Sforza s tribunal. This invitation may hold been made at the suggestion of Leonardo da Vinci who had an enthusiastic involvement in mathematics. At Milan Pacioli and Leonardo rapidly became close friends. Mathematicss and art were subjects which they discussed at length, both deriving greatly from the other. At this clip Pacioli began work on the second of his two celebrated plants, Divina proportione and the figures for the text were drawn by Leonardo. Few mathematicians can hold had a more gifted illustrator for their book! The book which Pacioli worked on during 1497 would finally organize the first of three books which he published in 1509 under the rubric Divina proportione ( see for illustration ) . This was the first of the three books which eventually made up this treatise, and it studied the Divine Proportion or aureate ratio which is the ratio a: B = B: ( a + B ) . It contains the theorems of Euclid which relate to this ratio, and it besides surveies regular and semiregular polygons ( see in peculiar for a treatment of Pacioli s work on regular polygons ) . Clearly the involvement of Leonardo in this aestheticall y fulfilling ratio both from a mathematical and artistic point of position was an of import influence on the work. The aureate ratio was besides of importance in architectural design and this subject was to organize the 2nd portion of the treatise which Pacioli wrote subsequently. The 3rd book in the treatise was a interlingual rendition into Italian of one of della Francesca s plants. Louis XII became king of France in 1498 and, being a descendent of the first duke of Milan, he claimed the dukedom. Venice supported Louis against Milan and in 1499 the Gallic ground forcess entered Milan In the undermentioned twelvemonth Ludovico Sforza was captured when he attempted to recapture the metropolis. Pacioli and Leonardo fled together in December 1499, three months after the Gallic captured Milan. They stopped foremost at Mantua, where they were the invitees of Marchioness Isabella dEste, and so in March 1500 they continued to Venice. From Venice they returned to Florence, where Pacioli and Leonardo shared a house. The University of Pisa had suffered a rebellion in 1494 and had moved to Florence. Pacioli was appointed to learn geometry at the University of Pisa in Florence in 1500. He remained in Florence, learning geometry at the university, until 1506. Leonardo, although disbursement 10 months away working for Cesare Borgia, besides remained in Florence until 1506. Pacioli, like Leonardo, had a enchantment off from Firenze when he taught at the University of Bologna during 1501-02. During this clip Pacioli worked with Scipione del Ferro and there has been much speculation as to whether the two discussed the algebraic solution of three-dimensional equations. Surely Pacioli discussed this subject in the Summa and some clip after Pacioli s visit to Bologna, del Ferro solved one of the two instances of this authoritative job. During his clip in Florence Pacioli was involved with Church personal businesss every bit good as with mathematics. He was elected the higher-up of his Order in Romagna and so, in 1506, he entered the monastery of Santa Croce in Florence. After go forthing Florence, Pacioli went to Venice where he was given the exclusive rights to print his plants at that place for the undermentioned 15 old ages. In 1509 he published the three volume work Divina proportione and besides a Latin interlingual rendition of Euclid s Elementss. The first printed edition of Euclid s Elementss was the 13th century interlingual rendition by Campanus which had been published in printed signifier in Venice in 1482. Pacioli s edition was based on that of Campanus but it contained much in the manner of note by Pacioli himself. In 1510 Pacioli returned to Perugia to talk at that place once more. He besides lectured once more in Rome in 1514 but by this clip Pacioli was 70 old ages of age and approaching the terminal of his active life of scholarship and instruction. He returned to Sansepolcro where he died in 1517 go forthing unpublished a major work De viribus stenographer on recreational jobs, geometrical jobs and proverbs. This work makes frequent mention to Leonardo da Vinci who worked with him on the undertaking, and many of the jobs in this treatise are besides in Leonardo s notebooks. Again it is a work for which Pacioli claimed no originality, depicting it as a collection. Despite the deficiency of originality in Pacioli s work, his parts to mathematics are of import, peculiarly because of the influence which his book were to hold over a long period. In the importance of Pacioli s work is discussed, in peculiar his calculation of approximative values of a square root ( utilizing a particular instance of Newton s method ) , his wrong analysis of certain games of opportunity ( similar to those studied by Pascal which gave rise to the theory of chance ) , his jobs affecting figure theory ( similar jobs appeared in Bachet s digest ) , and his aggregation of many charming squares. In 1550 there appeared a life of Piero della Francesca written by Giorgio Vasari. This life accused Pacioli of plagiarism and claimed that he stole della Francesca s work on position, on arithmetic and on geometry. This is an unjust accusal, for although there is truth that Pacioli relied to a great extent on the work of others, and surely on that of della Francesca in peculiar, he neer attempted to claim the work as his ain but acknowledged the beginnings which he used. J J OConnor and E F Robertson

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Example

Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Example Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Organizational Entry A study of managerial, professional and technical employees of a large OLL company mound that those who demonstrated success early In their career were more Likely to be promoted than those who were less successful early in their career (Dither Brett, 1991). Initial Job challenge has a positive impact on employee performance and success. The challenge should be compatible with your expectations and preferences. Employee preferences Challenging, interesting and meaningful work High salary Opportunities for advancement Job security Satisfactory working hours Pleasant working conditions Compatible co-workers Feeling of being respected and appreciated Opportunity to learn new skills Fair and loyal supervision Being asked ones opinion on work Issues Assistance with personal problems A study of business students showed the most important consideration to be the companys location, followed by salary and benefits (Barber Rolling, 1993). Another factor that affects employee preferences Is level of education. College graduates nave Deterrent preferences Trot null cocoons graduates anon tenure are also differences BTW college graduates. Engineering majors differ from liberal arts majors and students differ from C students. Age also plays an important role as well as specialization. Employee preferences change as a function of economic conditions. When Jobs are difficult to obtain, new employees may be more interested in pay and Job security. In a better economic climate when there are plenty of Jobs, issues such as challenging work or the opportunity to develop new skills rank higher. Preferences also differ as a function of race. A survey comparing Job preferences of black and white women college students, found that more blacks than whites wanted a high-paying Job rather than interesting work (Muriel, Frieze Frost, 1991). The recruitment process Sources of potential employees Recruiter characteristics College campus recruiting Information provision to Job recruits Sources of recruiting: Formal > ads in newspapers, referrals from employees, employment agencies, search services, placement services of professional associations, Job fairs, outplacement agencies, college campus, online recruiting (e. G. Several major newspapers including the New York Times, the Washington Post and the Chicago Tribune have Jointly begun an online career employment service). Informal > contacting friends and acquaintances > more accurate information and more often lead to hiring. A study of 186 students at universities and training schools found that the longer the bob search, the less the students used formal recruiting sources. However, those who remained unemployed 3 months after the study began significantly increased their use of formal sources > the use of formal sources was high in the early stages of a job search and again later if the search proved unsuccessful (Barber, Daly, Contamination Phillips, 1994). Recruiter characteristics like smiling, nodding, maintaining eye contact, demonstrating empathy and warmth and showing thoughtfulness, competence and personalities are important and influence applicants to accept Jobs. College men expressed en same Kelvin AT JODI acceptance winter tenet recruiter was male of female, but college women said they would be much more likely to accept a Job offer if the company recruiter was male. Research has shown that 50% of women interviewed are offended by gender-related comments made to them by male recruiters about their personal appearance. Also, Job applicants prefer recruiters to spend time during the interview to provide information about the company, to seek information about the applicant (give the chance to the applicant to speak about their achievements), and answer applicant questions. Also issues like how comfortable the applicant feels in the presence of their prospective superiors and the location of the company are important. Campus recruiting Fewer than half of the corporate recruiters have received training in the proper techniques for interviewing Job applicants > problems with the success of campus recruiting. Many organizations are turning to computerized recruitment databases: compilations of student resumes. Colleges and universities also maintain online resumes of graduating seniors as well as listings of companies that are hiring. Also dents can access information about alumni who will serve as mentors. Universities also offer computerized videoconferencing facilities in which companies can conduct long-distance interviews with college seniors > company access to schools they may not visit. Major problem for campus recruiting is finding Job candidates who have a realistic view of the business world. Both applicants and recruiters may present misleading images in order to attract attention > high incidence of turnover in the first 3-5 years of the first Job entry. Realistic Job previews: provide information that is as accurate as possible about all aspects of a Job. Such information can be supplied through a brochure or other written description of the Job, through a film or videotape, or through an on-the-Job sample of the work to see if the applicant can perform the required tasks > reduction of unrealistic expectation about Jobs. Research shows that realistic Job previews correlate positively with Job satisfaction, 100 performance Ana reach turnover rates. Also teeny reduce ten mummer AT applicants accepting Jobs. Their effect varies as a function of the prior exposure applicants have had to the Job in question > a study of 1,117 applicants for positions as correctional officers found hat applicants with previous experience at prison work were far less likely to accept job offers after watching a realistic Job preview on videotape than were applicants who had no such prior experience (Meaning, Denies Ravioli, 1993). After the recruiting process has been completed and applicants and organizations have decided that each meets the others needs, the selection process formally begins. The Selection Process Job and Worker analysis > 1/0 psychologists must investigate the nature of the Job. The organization will not know what abilities potential employees should have unless t can describe in detail what they are expected to do to perform the Job effectively > Job Analysis: the study of a Job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers. A Job analysis determines the specific skills necessary to the Job and from it a profile of worker qualification can be developed. Once these abilities have been specified, the human resource manager or the occupational psychologist must determine the most effective means of identifying these characteristics in potential employees, and evaluate them in each applicant. Then a score or level for the various abilities is established > the 1/0 psychologist may look at the present workers of the company to determine the cutoff scores that should be set. Recruitment decisions The company should then decide what recruitment method they will use to recruit new employees > ads, employment agencies, referrals from current employees. The response number of potential employees affects the criteria set for their selection > The selection ratio: the relationship between the number of people to be hired and the number available to be hired ( the potential labor supply). If there is a shortage of applicants and the Jobs must be filled within a few weeks, some requirements will have to be changed (e. G. He cutoff score on an intelligence test). A shortage of applicants may also force the company to expend its recruiting campaign and to offer higher wages, enhanced benefits or improved working conditions to attract and retain new employees. Selection techniques Application blanks, interviews, letters of recommendation, assessment centers and psychological tests. Usually a combination of techniques is used. In the U. S. Testing for drug use is no w widespread for all types of Jobs. Also, there is an increased concern for AIDS and some organizations screen their applicants for the HIVE. Some scientists have suggested that in the future, genetic testing may be applied to identify applicants who may be sensitive to certain chemicals used in the workplace and to predict those individuals who are likely to develop specific diseases. Testing the Selection Techniques Every new selection program must be investigated to determine its predictive accuracy or validity. This is done by evaluating the performance of the employees selected by the new procedures, through e. G. Supervisor ratings of their performance. By comparing hose ratings with the performance on the selection techniques we can determine how the 2 measures correlate. Did the selection techniques predict which of the applicants turned out to be the better workers? Based on the results, we either keep or modify our selection procedures. Fair Employment Practices 1972: regulations of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) > all Job applicants regardless of race, religion, sex or national origin are guaranteed equal opportunities for employment > discrimination on such grounds is illegal. Adverse impact When a minority group of applicants or employees is treated markedly worse than he majority group in personnel decisions, that minority group is said to be the target of adverse impact in the selection process. Any selection rate for a minority group that is less than 80% of the selection rate for the majority group is evidence of adverse impact > the company could be challenged in court for maintaining different rejection rates for minority and majority applicants, but other evidence would also have to be presented and not Just statistical documentation. Dilatoriness Stetsons Interviews and application blanks have been greatly affected by nondiscrimination isolation because questions that discriminate against a particular group can lead to lawsuits. No questions can be asked that identify applicants national origin, race, or color. Applicants cannot be asked to name their birthplace or that of their relatives, to identify their religious affiliation, or to give the maiden names of female relatives. It is also unlawful to inquire about the clubs or societies to which the applicants belong and to ask them to submit photographs with their employment applications. It is lawful to ask if applicants have ever been convicted of any crime (as conviction loud be considered relevant to Job performance in certain instance such as when someone convicted for embezzlement applies for a Job as a bank teller), but it is unlawful to ask if someone has ever been arrested because members of certain minority groups are much more likely to be arrested on suspicion of wrongdoing. Reverse Discrimination Equal Opportunities legislation has sometimes resulted in discrimination against members of the majority group > reverse discrimination: the phenomenon that may occur when recruiting, hiring, promotion and other personnel decisions in favor of embers of a minority group result in discrimination against members of the majority group. A 4-year study of 13,509 employees in scientific and engineering occupations found that women and blacks had greater promotion opportunities than equally qualified white men (Sheehan, 1992). Persons hired or promoted on an affirmative action basis may be stigmatize in this way. New legislation notes that the rights of the majority group must not be unnecessarily restrained in the effort to help minorities and that minorities should not be hired or promoted solely on the basis of percentages. Other targets of discrimination Older workers The work force is aging. Life expectancy is increasing and health in later life is improving. At the same time, working lives have been getting shorter with a trend towards early retirement. Old age formally starts at the point of retirement: 60 for women, 65 for men, but older workers are considered the ones who are above 50 years AT age. However, management still prefers to hire younger workers, despite consistent evidence from 1/0 psychology research that older workers are as productive and sometimes more so, as younger workers and have lower absenteeism and turnover rates. In general, older employees do not suffer from poorer health, diminished vigor or declining mental abilities when compared with younger employees. Studies of about 24,000 persons in managerial Jobs in the manufacturing, clerical and service sectors of the work force found that age was positively related to performance in highly complex and cognitively challenging Jobs and that performance declined with age only in less demanding Jobs such as low-level clerical or repetitive assembly-line work (Viola, Walden McDaniel, 1990). However, the stereotypes about older workers persist. They receive more negative reference evaluations than younger workers > a meta-analysis of studies of ratings of older employees found that workers 34 years old and younger tended to give less favorable ratings to workers aged 55 and older than they did to younger workers (Finniest, Burke Raja, 1995). Older workers are protected by law against ageism (discrimination in hiring and promotion with regard to age). The emphasis in the developed world should shift from planning for early retirement towards encouraging longer working lives. In Finland, the government has taken an active approach towards the employment of elder people for some years > longitudinal research program: the Finance project > developed the concept of work ability to assess the ability of workers to do their Job and to predict quality of life > increasing heterogeneity in work ability amongst older groups of workers > Nation-level action programs to promote health and lifestyle, to make adjustments to the physical work environments and to design work and organizational systems more carefully to the needs of older workers (adjustments include improved workplace design to reduce the physical workload, regular updating of professional skills and knowledge, and the introduction of more flexible scheduling of work, for example, by introducing micro-pauses following peak loads). Different countries have adopted different approaches to the issue of ageing, work and health due to their policies towards labor market intervention as well as the organizat ion of their health care systems. A major factor is whether health care is supported through employer-funded insurance or through general taxation. Workers with disabilities Employees with physical and mental disabilities are protected by law against Job Localization. Employers are required to make reasonable accommodations to ten physical or mental impairments of a qualified applicant or employee with a disability if it would not impose an undue hardship on normal business operations. Defining the term disability has proven difficult and requires some 60 pages of government regulations: in general, a person is considered disabled if s/he has a physical or cognitive impairment that limits one or more major life activities. [sensory impairment: vision or hearing disabilities, motor impairment, cognitive impairment: learning disabilities, speech impairment, mental retardation]. Research has shown that disabled employees perform as well as or better than nondurable employees do. Job opportunities for disabled persons vary as a function of type of disability: Pl with impairments of vision, hearing or motor skills experience greater difficulty obtaining employment than Pl with less disabling conditions. Women workers Women face discrimination particularly when applying for what are still considered to be traditionally male Jobs. Once hired, women receive lower wages than men with similar skills and qualifications that are performing the same Jobs do. Gender-based wage discrimination: lower pay for comparable worth. Comparable worth: the idea that Jobs that require comparable or equivalent skills should receive comparable compensation. Thus, discrimination against women today may occur less in the hiring process but more in terms of pay and promotion. Discrimination based on sexual orientation Gay men and lesbian women face discrimination in hiring in public agencies and private companies. Some companies, such as ATT, Xerox and Levi Strauss actively sponsor support groups and networks for their gay employees. Discrimination based on physical attractiveness Beautys: Judgment based on a pleasing physical appearance > has shown to affect ring and promotion decisions. Many Pl Delve Tanat phonically attractive persons also possess more sealed personality and social traits. A bias against overweight Job applicants has also been found. Job Analysis Job analysis: the study of a Job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers. Includes information about the tools or equipment used, the operations performed, the education and training required, the wages paid and any unique aspects of the job such as safety hazards. Essential for employee selection and the design of training programs. Also, it helps in he design of Jobs and workspaces for more efficient performance. Example: if an operator has to walk a long distance from the machine to the storage shelves every time it is necessary to replenish the supply of raw material, this wasted time and effort can be eliminated be redesigning the work area. Job analysis can also uncover safety hazards or dangerous operating procedures. It can also be applied to the development of Job evaluations which are used to determine appropriate wages for various Jobs > in order to determine fair pay, judgments are made by experts that are based on Job analyses after the collection ND evaluation of data from large numbers of employees on such Job-related factors as the specific skills required, the level of education, the level of responsibility and the consequences of making errors. 2 basic approaches to Job analysis: the Job-oriented approach and the worker- oriented approach. The Job-oriented approach: focuses on the specific tasks involved in performing a Job and on the Job outcome or level of productivity. The worker-oriented approach focuses on worker behaviors on the Job and on the specific skills, abilities and personal traits needed to perform the Job. Most Job analyses involve a combination of Job-oriented and worker-oriented data. Interviews: used in Job analysis and involve extensive meetings with the persons directly connected with the Job: the workers performing the Job and their supervisors, and sometimes the instructors who trained the workers for the Job. I nose Interviews may De supplemented Day quaternaries. Questionnaires: 2 types used: the unstructured one and the structured one. In the unstructured or open-end approach, the subject matter experts describe in their own words the components of the Job and the tasks performed. In the structured approach, workers and supervisors are provided with descriptions of tasks, operations and working conditions and are asked to rate the items or to select those items that characterize their Jobs. Length of Job experience and race have been shown to influence the content of the lob analysis. Level of education and gender have only minimal effects. A widely used questionnaires is the PAS: Position Analysis Questionnaire: consists of 194 Job elements related to specific behaviors. These elements are organized into 6 categories of Job behavior: information input, manila processes, work output, legislations with other persons, Job context and other Job activities and conditions. Subject matter experts rate each element for its importance to the Job in question. Such quantifiable ratings have an advantage over the kind of information yielded by the unstructured questionnaire. Direct observation: direct observation of the workers on the Job. But Pl may behave differently when they are being watched, so it is necessary for the Job analysts to remain as unobtrusive as possible. Also, they should observe a representative sample of workers and make observations at various times throughout he workday to take account of changes caused by such factors as fatigue. Systematic Activity Logs: workers maintain a detailed written record of their activities during a given period. Critical Incidents: The critical-incidents technique is a means of identifying specific actions or behaviors that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the Job. It is based on identification of those incidents that are necessary to successful Job performance. The goal is to have subject matter experts indicate the behaviors that differentiate good from poor workers. A single critical incident is of little value, but undress of them can effectively describe a Job task sequence in terms of the unique behaviors required to perform it well. Research comparing the effectiveness of various approaches to Job analysis indicates that they vary in their usefulness. The choice of a specific technique must depend on the organizations reasons for conducting the analysis in the first place. Unless the purpose of the Job analysis is stated (e. G. Refining a selection or training program), the company cannot make an informed decision about which technique to use or what kind of information to seek. But generally, a combination of methods provides

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Canadian Inventor Organizations

Canadian Inventor Organizations Who governs and decides intellectual property law in Canada? Where can you get intellectual property protection that provides coverage in Canada. The answer is CIPO - the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Note: Does a patent in Canada protect rights in other countries? No. Patent laws are national so you must obtain a patent in each country in which you want protection. Did you know that 95% of Canadian patents and 40% of US patents were granted to foreign nationals? Canadian Intellectual Property Office English/French language The Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), a Special Operating Agency (SOA) associated with Industry Canada, is responsible for the administration and processing of the greater part of intellectual property in Canada. CIPOs areas of activity include: patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial designs, and integrated circuit topographies. Canadian Patent LawThe Manual of Patent Office Practice (MOPOP) is maintained to ensure that it reflects the latest developments in the Canadian patent laws and practices. Patent and Trademark Databases If your idea has ever been patented before, you will not eligible for a patent. While hiring a professional is recommended an inventor should do at least preliminary search themselves and if capable a complete search. One purpose of a trademark search is to determine if someone has already trademarked your intended mark. Search Engine for Canadian PatentsThis database lets you access over 75 years of patent descriptions and images. You can search, retrieve and study more than 1,400,000 patent documents.International Patent SearchesSearch Engine for Canadian TrademarksThe search result(s) will contain the Trade-mark, Status, Application number, and Registration number (if it exists) of the document.International Trademark Searches Patent Classification Patent classification is a numbered filing system that helps manage the huge databases of patents. Patents are assigned a class number and name (not to be mistaken for issue number) based on what type of invention it is. Since 1978 Canada has used the International Patent Classification (IPC) which is maintained by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), one of 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations. International Patent Classification (IPC) Support, Funding Awards - National Industry CanadaPrograms and Services - By SubjectCanadian Technology NetworkIf you run a small or medium-sized technology related business in Canada, the Canadian Technology Network can give you access to a wide range of technology and related business assistance through a cross-country network of advisors.Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP)IRAP has four main components:Technology Expertise and Advisory ServicesFinancial Assistance for RD activitiesNetworkingPartnershipsCanadian enterprises with under 500 employees and industrial associations desiring to enhance their technological capability are eligible for support.Ernest C. Manning Awards FoundationAwards by nomination Canadians who have demonstrated recent innovative talent in developing and successfully marketing a new concept, process or procedure, may be eligible for one of these awards: Principal Award ($100,000), Award of Distinction ($25,000), Innovation Awards (2 at $10,000). Continue Provincial National Western Economic Diversification CanadaFunding and other help for western Canadians. Alberta Calgary Innovation CentreThe Calgary Innovation Centre is a unique mentoring service established to help early stage companies grow revenue, address immediate business problems, and understand which financing options are available to grow their business. The services of the Calgary Innovation Centre are available at no cost to entrepreneurs in the technology sector. Alberta Research Council ServicesFounded in 1921 as a provincial research council, the Alberta Research Council Inc develops and commercializes technology. ARC will perform applied research and development for you on a contract basis or co-venture with you to develop new technologies, earning a return on investment from the commercialization of products and processes. Their strengths are in the agriculture, energy, environment, forestry, health and manufacturing industries. Their investment focus is on technology platforms based on capabilities developed for these industries. ARC hires permanent, temporary, casual and sea sonal employees (inventors and engineers). Advanced Education and TechnologyLook under Technology Priorities to learn about innovative scientific research, development and application activities happening in Alberta. Other sections include information on scholarships, careers, trades, and more. British Columbia British Columbia Institute of TechnologyProvides support and funding for BCIT students and faculty.Innovation Resource CentreProvides support to new and established entrepreneurs through both one to one advising as well as workshops and seminars. BC Innovation CouncilFunds a range of programs that support and encourage established and emerging innovators.Kootenay Association for Science Technology (KAST0)Sci-Tech NorthVancouver Enterprise Forum (VEF)SmartSeed IncT-Net British Columbia Local Community Clubs Groups British Columbia Inventors SocietyVancouver Electric Vehicle AssociationVancouver Robotics ClubSouth Vancouver Island Inventors c/o John A. Mayzel 1931 Hampshire Road, Victoria, BC Canada V8R 5T9 Manitoba Manitoba Inventors’ Society Saskatchewan National Ontario Quà ©bec Monde des Inventions Quà ©bà ©coisesLAssociation des inventeurs du Quà ©bec est un organisme sans but lucratif dont la mission est daider, encadrer et soutenir les inventeurs quà ©bà ©cois, dà ©fendre leurs droits et protà ©ger leurs intà ©rà ªts. National New Brunswick Newfoundland Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Innovation CorporationInNOVAcorp is a Nova Scotia company that promotes, stimulates and encourages the successful development of technology products and services for emerging entrepreneurs in the life sciences and IT industry. Supporting all of these activities is InNOVAcorps Corporate Services group. They source new projects, facilitate corporate planning, organize corporate marketing and maintain the corporations IT architecture. Prince Edward Island

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Auditing and Assurance Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Auditing and Assurance Services - Essay Example The objective of the paper signifies the importance of the auditory system along with the reliance level that can be provided towards the audit process. This paper also intends to reflect on the pros and cons of the auditory as well as assurance services that need to be present in the financial statement of the organizations. The auditing process of an organization or a firm involves with the model of accountability, inspection of the monetary reports along with the financial demands for assessment of the auditory system. The audit process in this regards provide with the statements which significantly fulfill the gap of expectations between the user and the financial statements. The auditing process for the organization generally involves with the convenient regulation dealing with control tools of the system. Conducting an auditing and assurance program also assists an organization for the critical assessment of the financial statements with the proper evidence. In this context the application of tools as well as techniques examine the main revenue along with the cost activities of the firm. Management representation of the organization, identifying the errors as well as the weaknesses of the financial activities of the firm is also an important responsibility of the audit process for the organization. Therefore, documentation of the audit and assurance shall provide the management with valuable assistance in taking the initiatives according to the review of the financial statements that were prepared in the audit process of the organization. The assurance service of the auditing process further helps the auditors to keep the record of the evidence in the auditing process of the firm (Pearsoned, â€Å"An Introduction to Auditing and Assurance†). With regards to the pros and cons of the process in the auditing system, it can be said that it may help to forecast the future cost activities of the firm along with the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Diabetes Patients Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Diabetes Patients - Case Study Example Administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was mainly to manage the presumed cellulitis. The doctors recommended insulin therapy after a series of medication on oral hypoglycaemic drugs. After consultations, the visiting surgeons recommended continued abdominal imaging to the patient. Abdominal imaging however, however, was not possible since the 45-year-old woman was too obese to fit in the CT scan. She could not fit in MRI due to her obesity. The doctors finally treated the woman’s abdominal pain using opiates after thorough medical observation. The current treatment care for the 45 year old woman is the six one after a series of medication and obesity management. The forty-five year old has also been suffering from frequent thirst and urination. Her status worsened six months ago after admission with hyperglycemia and later for a patient care program for management. The 45-year-old woman’s daughter also suffers from obesity. The daughter frequently complains of severe abdominal pain (Blak et al., 2012a, p. 2). Obesity proves to be a serious problem in the modern world. Doctors in United Kingdom hospitals report many cases of obesity caused complications daily. Brunello et al., 2009, p. 2, discusses that obesity is a function of the body mass index. Doctors consider a body mass index greater than 25 kilogram per meters square as an overweight. Information from Management of obesity in adults,† 2004, p. 1 suggest that patients suffering from morbidly obesity have body mass index greater than 40 kilograms per meters square while obese weight patients have a body mass index greater than 30 kilograms per meters square. Obese individuals have higher probabilities of contracting associated illnesses such as diabetes, heart attack or kidney failure, respiratory problems, urinary stress incontinence and cancer. Health research indicates that morbid obese women are infertile. Mahmood and Arulkumaran, 2012, p. 405, elaborates that infertility of such women results from the changing levels of estrogen and progesterone that consequently affects regularity of menstrual cycle and fertility. The forty-year old was overweight, complained of frequent chest pains, and had polyuria symptoms.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Marketing Mix Essay Example for Free

Marketing Mix Essay Broadly speaking, in order to maximise profits, different firms use distinct tools to perform strategy and decisions, such as SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis and marketing mix analysis. In terms of the marketing mix, as an important concept in the subject of business studies, it refers to â€Å"a balance between the four main elements of marketing [is] needed to carry out the marketing strategy. It consists of the ‘4ps’: product, price, promotion and place† (MarcouseÃŒ  and Surridge et al., 2011:141). Firms can build an effective marketing strategy by using the marketing mix as a tool, and it is possible that business will fail if the marketing mix is not correct. The aim of the essay is to analyse elements of the marketing mix. Initially, it will discuss four elements, which are the product, price, place and promotion respectively. Then, it will evaluate the most vital component in the marketing mix, which is the product. The first component of the marketing mix is the product. â€Å"A product is a good or service produced by a business or organization, and made available to the public for consumption† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008). Each product has a different feature, which could be the unique selling points of them. Roams and Cota (2008:152) attempt to define this term is, â€Å"A unique selling point (USP) is a short statement that explains why a customer should buy from you instead of your competitorsin. For example, Apple Corporation has a unique and independent operation system for their iPhone. It has been argued that there are three levels of product, first of which is core or generic product (Levitt, 1986:361). This is the basic and general physical product, in other words, it is the product that has minimum features and the consumer would expect it to have. In a microwave oven example, it should have enough space inside to put food and it would be expected to work effectively. The second level of the product is known as actual or tangible product. This is, touchable and physical property of the product. Young (2008:130) suggests this level of product will contain the product’s name, style, brand name, label, packaging and quality level. This level of product provides a material and a clearer image of the product to customers. The next and last level is called augmented product. Leader and Kyritsis (1990:12) explain this product provides privileges and additional services to the consumer; it also can reflect the differentiation of the product. For instance, services such as free delivery, discounts and additional purchases. The second element of the marketing mix is price. There are two main factors can determine the price of product, which is price elasticity and pricing strategy respectively. Blythe (2012:154) examines the elasticity of demand will illustrate that different categories have different extent of sensitivity when the price changes. Consequently, it could help firms make a better decision when they set the price. Thompson and Machin (2003:65) support that, â€Å"a business must know how responsive their products are to price changes so that they can assess the potential impact of, say, special offers or a price increase†. The next factor is the pricing strategy. Also, it is more imperative than price elasticity when firms make their price decisions. Firms use a serious of pricing strategies, however, the pricing method of cost plus is used most commonly, which is the basic form of all pricing decisions. It refers to a business calculates the average cost and then add a mark-up to the final selling price. Ashwin and Merrills (2008:347) point out another price strategy is called discriminatory pricing; this means a firm set different price for different target groups. As the description from Thompson and Machin (2003:65), discriminatory price refers to â€Å"different price is charged to different group people at different times†. For instance, a cinema charges a different price for students and adults. Besides, it charges different for daytime and evening showings as well. In addition, psychology-pricing strategy is also used quite frequently in supermarkets. For example, Morrison’s sell a bottle of milk  £1.99 rather than  £2, hence customers will perceive the price as being lower. Levitt (1986) argues discriminatory pricing mainly relies on emotional responses from the consumer. The third component in the marketing mix is the place. It concerns the way in which a product is distributed. Stimpson (2005:16) points out â€Å"the ‘place’ decision involves making the product or service available to  consumers in the most appropriate way†. Distribution channel as the most important factor could affect the decision of the place. There are numbers of factors can determine how the product is distributed. Blythe (2012:173) suggests one of them is the marketing aim. The increasing scale raised enterprise intends to expand as wide a distribution as possible. Furthermore, legal restrictions should be regarded as well. Stone (2001) states there are numerous products are not permitted to sell in some places. For instance, it is forbidden to sell the alcohol at the petrol station. In general, direct distribution, retailers, wholesalers and agent are four core channels of distribution. Direct distribution is the producers sell products to customers directly without intermediaries. Blythe (2012:175) explains this, â€Å"direct distribution channels are typical of personal services such as hairdressing†. For retailers, it is an organization that offers goods to customers. Tesco and Wal-Mart, for example. In addition, Koter (2005) describes that, in many market, wholesalers act as a link between producers and consumers. Wholesalers usually buy goods from manufacturers then sell goods to the final consumers or retailers. In contrast, agents do not actually purchase goods; they only help manufacturers to sell. Thompson and Machin (2003:80) claim that, â€Å" agent never actually owns a product, they usually connect buyers and sellers and manage the transfer of the good†. The final element in the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is not only advertising but also a communication tool between producers and consumers. â€Å"promotion is about communicating with customers and potential customers† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008:331). Promotion is essential for a product because it is able to increase the demand for products. Young (2008) suggests promotion can raise emotion, concern or awareness for products or issues. In addition, promotion can protect and preserve the market share as well. The methods of above the line and below the line are two main types methods of promotion. As for above the line promotion, it refers to a firm uses the advertising media but does not has direct control. The most recognizable  face of advertising is television. Because of it can provide the introduction of product with colorful images. Wolinski and Coates (2008:373) state that, â€Å"television has the advantage of being memorable, as it can present both moving images and sound†. Thompson and Machin (2003:74) examines the below the line promotion includes promotional media over which the firm has control. For example, personal selling, it means a salesman or a sales team who regularly visits consumers in person. Having introduced each element of the marketing mix, the essay will now evaluate the most crucial element in the marketing mix – product. There are two principal reasons for product as the most important element in the marketing mix. First of all, product as the key component makes the entirely process of the link between customers and producers possible. Amount of sales promotion and price reduction will not help an enterprise to achieve their market target if the product is not appropriate and attractable. Stimpson (2005:24) agrees with this view that, â€Å" a balance and integrated mix is essential, but without a product that offers customers real and distinctive benefits, even the best-laid marketing plans can be wasted†. In the mean time, Kazmi (2007), in her work, Marketing Management, suggests that the product or service is the most vital element, without a good product, you have nothing. Furthermore, Adcock and Halborg (2001) sustains that the attention of customers will be attracted if a firm can develop a high quality product, hence, the profits that the firm makes will increase. As a result, the pote ntial for business success is significantly enhanced. The second reason is that products enable to decide a firm’s profits, sales, market share, image, reputation and stature. Additionally, product can also determine the scope and direction of a company’s activity. Product acts a heart in the whole marketing mix. Most of the scholars support that view. Stimpson (2005:24) points out that, â€Å"the product is usually considered to be the most important component of the marketing mix†. Stone (2001) believed that in most case the product itself is the key to a successful marketing mix. However, there will be instances that when other components dominate  the marketing mix. Wolinski and Coates (2008:346) argues that, â€Å" At a festival, only one type of bottled water might be available, so the place is the most important factor†. In contrast, Baker (1991) claims when consumer with limited money might choose the product with the lower price, this is due to consumer has insufficient resources to purchase additi onal products. In this case, price is the most significant component. To recapitulate, the essay has introduced and analysed four elements product, price, place and promotion in the marketing mix. Marketing mix as a tool is able to help firms make efficient business plan and strategy. Each element is playing a very vital role in the marketing mix. Furthermore, the essay has identified the product is the most crucial part since the product is the key component linking between the producers and consumers. It can be concluded that all the elements in the marketing are essential and necessary, while in the most case, product is the most essential component in the marketing mix. An enterprise should coordinate and integrate the four elements so that the firm can build an efficient marketing strategy and achieves more profits as possible. Reference list: Ashwin, A., Merrills, S. and Thompson, R. 2008. Collins biz/ed AS business studies. London: Collins Educational. Baker, M.(1991) Marketing, An Introductory Text, 5th edn. London: Macmillan Education Ltd. Blythe, J. 2012. Essentials of marketing. 5th edn. Harlow: Pearson. Felina C. Young and Cristobal M. Pagoso. 2008. Principles of Marketing 1st edn. Manila: Red Book Store. Kotler, P. 2005. Principles of marketing. 4th edn. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/FinancialTimes. Leader, W. G. and Kyritsis, N. 1990. Fundamentals of marketing. New edn. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Levitt,T.: 1986. The Marketing Imagination. New York: Free express. MarcouseÃŒ , I., Surridge, M. and Gillespie, A. 2011. Business studies for A level. Abingdon, Oxon [UK]: Hodder Education. Ramos, A. and Cota, S. 2008. Search Engine Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Stimpson, P. 2005. Place. Business Review, 11:4-16 Stimpson, P. 2004. The Product Decision. Business Review, 11:1-24 Stone, P. 2001. Make Marketing Work for you. Oxford: How To Books. Thompson, R. and Machin, D. 2003. AS Business Studies.1st edn. London: Collins Educational Wolinski, J. and Coates, G. 2008. AQA AS business studies. 2nd edn. Deddington, Oxfordshire: Philip Allan Updates. a

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Narrative on Brown v. Board of Education Exhibit Essay -- Narrative Pa

Narrative Assignment Walking into a lecture hall in Gregory Hall, I really didn’t know what to expect. I dressed as I would any other day; an Abercrombie shirt, a pair of frayed shorts and some casual sandals. I sat towards the front of the room and arrived slightly early to ensure a good seat. The name of this Brown v. Board education discussion was entitled, "Rethinking Slavery: 1800-1861,† and was arranged by the Mellon initiative. As I waited to observe the audience as they filled the seats with pencil in hand, I was amazed by the amount of diversity I saw before me. By the time the lecture was ready to set foot, I observed that nearly the entire lecture hall was filled. I would say that the hall where our discussion was being held in could probably hold around 300 people. The majority of the audience was not students forced to write a paper on the Brown v. Board Commemoration events, but rather scholars who were on average in their mid-40s. It seemed as though everyone knew each other to some degree. At one point, I saw a woman walk in with her young son and they were greeted by one of the first presenters. Oftentimes, groups of 2 or 3 walked into the room and they would sit down in no particular section of the seating and proceed to talk moderately loudly and peacefully. There was a sense of joy and rejuvenation in the air. After making my final observations of the crowd, I noted that it was a pr edominantly white showing! Not something I would expect to see when attending a discussion on slavery. It was a spectacle for me to see a group of Asian Americans nodding in unison when points were made during the seminar relating to black and white race relations. I would say that African-Americans wer... ...ree topics in detail instead of giving us new incite on slavery? Finally what followed was a short question and answer section. Professor Ira Berlin was so excited about getting food at the following reception that he had to be reminded about the questioning section. How much compassion does that show I wondered? I observed that most of the questions Professor Berlin received were from African-American’s though their presence in the lecture was towards the bottom of the spectrum. The majority of questions that were being asked inferred the level of political correctness in the way in which Berlin addressed certain racial issues. It seemed as though the questions were rather insignificant and that the questioners knew the answers they’d receive before they asked them. After all, wasn’t everyone in that room that attended voluntarily there for the same general cause?

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Globalization: Has it helped Muslim women to gain education? Essay

The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). Aim of Paper This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women Ancient Practices Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. Evolution and Today This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality. Muslim Women’s status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift. Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Globalization: Behind the scenes How Globalization helped? Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. Technology Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education. Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Example of Malaysia Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men. Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of â€Å"Islamic† men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas. The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. Bibliography Introduction Globalization is a process that has been inherent in the society ever since mankind began moving around in search of food on Earth. The realization that globalization is a major phenomenon that has brought about several changes in the lives of people was quite late. The reason behind this was also logical. Globalization in the past was not as accelerated as it has been since the past three to four decades. Things globalized at a much inflated rate during the post-1950s than they did before that (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). Though the advantages and disadvantages of globalization are altogether another issue, one thing is certain: it has assisted Muslim women in breaking the vicious circle of false religious ideologies and helped them in gaining education. Though, most of the time, laws have been bent through interpretation loopholes in the religion to safeguard the interests of men and to maintain a level of supremacy over women. This practice has been challenged over the years by social activists and women rights campaigners but the cries have fallen on deaf years. Several incidents and events have occurred corroborating the fact that globalization has helped Muslim women in advancing towards knowledge and education (â€Å"Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. †, 2006). This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women Ancient Practices One of the most blatant truths of mankind is the fact that religious constraints and masculine dominance have always been dominant over women. From the times of the pre-historic man to the times of renaissance, women were always considered to be a kind of commodity to be owned by men and used as per their will. Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. The United Kingdom too was no exception to the treatment (or rather lack of it) towards women; women were not allowed to vote or take part in the government till as late as the 18th century. However, things gradually began to change in the European countries and USA. People began to realize the equality of men and women and from there began the actualization movements to provide equal statuses to men and women and to eradicate gender discrimination. Evolution and Today Today in most developed nations, the concept of gender discrimination is smirked at, women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men and are entitled to the same treatment. This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality (Muzaffar, 2009). Muslim Women’s Status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift. Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq and Malaysia have the largest populations of Muslims in the world. The rights of women in these countries are highly influenced by Islam. Islamic principles and shariah law have been the foundations upon which the rights of men, women and society have been drafted. Globalization: Behind the scenes Religious ideologies and Islamic misinterpretations have long denied women their fundamental rights of education and independence in non-secular countries – examples include the tribal areas of Afghanistan; Pakistan; extremist areas in Kashmir, Central India and Gujrat; Saudi Arabia; Morocco and Kenya. On one pretext or the other men have used Islam as the sword (without realizing that Islam has no such injunctions) to cut short the rights of women in a modern world. How Globalization Helped? However globalization has been the silent factor providing empowerment to women across the globe and granting them access to education. Globalization changed the international alignment of businesses bringing about more foreign direct investment and joint collaborations. Women in states where Islam was cited as the keystone governing all their behavior and rights found that globalization resulted in exposure of the maltreatments against them. Media and foreign activists have initiated several campaigns in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the past decade (some of them being as a result of 9/11 influx). The revelation of the actual state of women in these troubled areas led to federal control and social activists’ involvements in these areas. These groups developed schools, colleges, abolished the previous customs and illicit practices in the shroud of religion and made sure that the sanctity of women was upheld (Muzaffar, 2009). The major role of globalization was the increased integration of regional economies which made dependency and mutuality inevitable for countries and regions within. Countries could no longer remain aloof of the international market as globalization brought them closer together in terms of social, economic, political and cultural dependence (Apple, Kenway, & Singh, 2005). The major hand of globalization in helping Muslim women develop education was the spread of education itself. Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. In countries like Malaysia and Pakistan, the number of universities grew with great pace over the past twenty years. Though the change in ideology and Islamic understanding was not visible in the tribal areas of Pakistan due to ignorance and lack of integration with federal rule, Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men. The illusion that Islam confines women to within the household was a widely held belief in such nations and is still today the chief limiting factor for the development of women in Pakistan’s tribal areas (Hassan, 2006). Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. The â€Å"muftis† and sermon-givers of Islam who hardly possessed enough knowledge to save their own skins propagated misleading Islamic â€Å"fatwas† relating to the rights of women forcing them into confinement and imposing undue restrictions over them. However, globalization increased the synergy between different educated and learned men and women of Islam bringing about a correction of faith, ideas and beliefs. Thus, several hundred schools and colleges have been built for the education and counseling of women in rural Afghanistan and Pakistan. Women from backward areas have been able to move ahead with the advent of globalization through increased opportunities and exposure to people who are willing to work towards the uplift of women (Maisami, 2003). A secondary effect of globalization that helped women progress was the increased need for skilled labor and competition. Since the tariff system was done away with by the World Trade Organization (WTO) reforms, sellers found that overnight they had lost their competitive advantage – now buyers could select from an international market and choose the lowest prices without trade restrictions. This brought a desire for competition amongst the medium-sized sellers and growth amongst the large sellers. The small fishes could not do much as survival was a zero possibility for them. Thus, women were required to bring in expertise and newer ideas in some of the medium sized businesses in the developing nations. Fuelled by this demand, more and more women found opportunities knocking on their doors and calling them towards empowerment. Though there is not much literature available to support this phenomenon, I believe that my interaction with friends in Pakistan has given me a fair idea of the reality of this happening (Muzaffar, 2006). Evidence Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education. Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Determination and courage leads to success – it has been so in the case for women who have broken their jinx and acquired education only through the use of Internet. These women have been the ones whose parents and husbands have not been extremists, thus allowing them the use of technologies such as the Internet. Otherwise, in 99% of the non-secular areas, technology is abhorred as much as Western contact and modernization (Hassan, 2006). Modernization, according to the extremists is â€Å"wearing jeans, using a mobile phone and speaking in English†. People with such mindsets have been severe impediments for their women in the path to acquiring education. Evidence Malaysian women are one of the most progressive sect of Muslim women across the globe. Their modesty or integrity has not changed – most women still follow the â€Å"hijab† which is customary to ensure modesty in women – however, their approach to life has transformed greatly. Working alongside men and performing chores which even today is thought of to be â€Å"a man’s job† in most backward Muslim regions, Malaysian women display the true sense of how globalization has assisted them in overpowering false Islamic ideologies built and propagated in the name of religion only to bring shame to it (Altwaijri, 2006). Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of â€Å"Islamic† men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas. The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. The times of forced ignorance and support from misleading â€Å"mullahs† on the part of Muslim men trying to oppress women is now a matter of confinement to the areas which are still not much in contact with the rest of the world. Globalization has thereof been a major contributor to the ease with which Muslim women have been able to gain access to education. Without the advent of globalization, communication and technological barriers would have had kept Muslim women stagnant and at bay. It has been the increasing inter-mingling of international communities which has given Muslim women the opportunity to move ahead with the rest of the world. In conclusion, globalization forces will continue to provide more opportunities for Muslim women to gather education and break the barriers of religious idealism that have long kept their talent within the limits of their houses (Mirjana, 2006). Bibliography Altwaijri, Abdulaziz Othman. â€Å"The Islamic World and Globalization. † ISESCO. Org. 26 July 2008 . The above reference was quite relvant to the topic of how globalization affects the Islamic world. The basic effects were used and then the impact upon Muslim women was easier to build up upon. Hassan, R. (2006). Islam in the Area of Globalization. Globalization, modernity and identity ar fundamental issues in contemporary Islam and Islamic Studies. , 175-189. This article discusses the major issues and complexes that Muslim men hold against women so that their behavior has been very aggressive and has led to oppression of women. Maisami, Mona. â€Å"Islam and Globalization. † The Fountain. July-September 2003. 27 July 2008 Very helpful in documenting the issues that were removed through globalization. Discusses to a certain extent the women issues as well. Mirjana Radovi, M. (2006). The Perspective of Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Age of Globalization. Information Age Publishing , 3-14. This article was a snapshot of the whole document which provided the women issues and how globalization impacts women in gaining education. Muzaffar, Chandra. â€Å"Globalization and Religion: Some Reflections. † ReadingIslam. com. 29 June 2002. 9 May 2009 This article discusses the religious ideologies that have been cited as reasons for limiting the movement of women and keeping them from growing independent. Apple, M. W. ; Kenway, J. ; & Singh, M. (Eds. ). (2005). Globalizing Education: Policies, Pedagogies and Politics. New York: Peter Lang. The typical Muslim mentality regarding the independence and education of women is discussed in detail which helps in building up a nice conclusion. â€Å"Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. † New York University’s Dialogues: Islamic World-U. S. -The West. 10-11 February 2006. 24 July 2008 . The most relevant article for this topic which provided the largest literature review on the topic.