Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Example

Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Example Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Essay Organizational Entry A study of managerial, professional and technical employees of a large OLL company mound that those who demonstrated success early In their career were more Likely to be promoted than those who were less successful early in their career (Dither Brett, 1991). Initial Job challenge has a positive impact on employee performance and success. The challenge should be compatible with your expectations and preferences. Employee preferences Challenging, interesting and meaningful work High salary Opportunities for advancement Job security Satisfactory working hours Pleasant working conditions Compatible co-workers Feeling of being respected and appreciated Opportunity to learn new skills Fair and loyal supervision Being asked ones opinion on work Issues Assistance with personal problems A study of business students showed the most important consideration to be the companys location, followed by salary and benefits (Barber Rolling, 1993). Another factor that affects employee preferences Is level of education. College graduates nave Deterrent preferences Trot null cocoons graduates anon tenure are also differences BTW college graduates. Engineering majors differ from liberal arts majors and students differ from C students. Age also plays an important role as well as specialization. Employee preferences change as a function of economic conditions. When Jobs are difficult to obtain, new employees may be more interested in pay and Job security. In a better economic climate when there are plenty of Jobs, issues such as challenging work or the opportunity to develop new skills rank higher. Preferences also differ as a function of race. A survey comparing Job preferences of black and white women college students, found that more blacks than whites wanted a high-paying Job rather than interesting work (Muriel, Frieze Frost, 1991). The recruitment process Sources of potential employees Recruiter characteristics College campus recruiting Information provision to Job recruits Sources of recruiting: Formal > ads in newspapers, referrals from employees, employment agencies, search services, placement services of professional associations, Job fairs, outplacement agencies, college campus, online recruiting (e. G. Several major newspapers including the New York Times, the Washington Post and the Chicago Tribune have Jointly begun an online career employment service). Informal > contacting friends and acquaintances > more accurate information and more often lead to hiring. A study of 186 students at universities and training schools found that the longer the bob search, the less the students used formal recruiting sources. However, those who remained unemployed 3 months after the study began significantly increased their use of formal sources > the use of formal sources was high in the early stages of a job search and again later if the search proved unsuccessful (Barber, Daly, Contamination Phillips, 1994). Recruiter characteristics like smiling, nodding, maintaining eye contact, demonstrating empathy and warmth and showing thoughtfulness, competence and personalities are important and influence applicants to accept Jobs. College men expressed en same Kelvin AT JODI acceptance winter tenet recruiter was male of female, but college women said they would be much more likely to accept a Job offer if the company recruiter was male. Research has shown that 50% of women interviewed are offended by gender-related comments made to them by male recruiters about their personal appearance. Also, Job applicants prefer recruiters to spend time during the interview to provide information about the company, to seek information about the applicant (give the chance to the applicant to speak about their achievements), and answer applicant questions. Also issues like how comfortable the applicant feels in the presence of their prospective superiors and the location of the company are important. Campus recruiting Fewer than half of the corporate recruiters have received training in the proper techniques for interviewing Job applicants > problems with the success of campus recruiting. Many organizations are turning to computerized recruitment databases: compilations of student resumes. Colleges and universities also maintain online resumes of graduating seniors as well as listings of companies that are hiring. Also dents can access information about alumni who will serve as mentors. Universities also offer computerized videoconferencing facilities in which companies can conduct long-distance interviews with college seniors > company access to schools they may not visit. Major problem for campus recruiting is finding Job candidates who have a realistic view of the business world. Both applicants and recruiters may present misleading images in order to attract attention > high incidence of turnover in the first 3-5 years of the first Job entry. Realistic Job previews: provide information that is as accurate as possible about all aspects of a Job. Such information can be supplied through a brochure or other written description of the Job, through a film or videotape, or through an on-the-Job sample of the work to see if the applicant can perform the required tasks > reduction of unrealistic expectation about Jobs. Research shows that realistic Job previews correlate positively with Job satisfaction, 100 performance Ana reach turnover rates. Also teeny reduce ten mummer AT applicants accepting Jobs. Their effect varies as a function of the prior exposure applicants have had to the Job in question > a study of 1,117 applicants for positions as correctional officers found hat applicants with previous experience at prison work were far less likely to accept job offers after watching a realistic Job preview on videotape than were applicants who had no such prior experience (Meaning, Denies Ravioli, 1993). After the recruiting process has been completed and applicants and organizations have decided that each meets the others needs, the selection process formally begins. The Selection Process Job and Worker analysis > 1/0 psychologists must investigate the nature of the Job. The organization will not know what abilities potential employees should have unless t can describe in detail what they are expected to do to perform the Job effectively > Job Analysis: the study of a Job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers. A Job analysis determines the specific skills necessary to the Job and from it a profile of worker qualification can be developed. Once these abilities have been specified, the human resource manager or the occupational psychologist must determine the most effective means of identifying these characteristics in potential employees, and evaluate them in each applicant. Then a score or level for the various abilities is established > the 1/0 psychologist may look at the present workers of the company to determine the cutoff scores that should be set. Recruitment decisions The company should then decide what recruitment method they will use to recruit new employees > ads, employment agencies, referrals from current employees. The response number of potential employees affects the criteria set for their selection > The selection ratio: the relationship between the number of people to be hired and the number available to be hired ( the potential labor supply). If there is a shortage of applicants and the Jobs must be filled within a few weeks, some requirements will have to be changed (e. G. He cutoff score on an intelligence test). A shortage of applicants may also force the company to expend its recruiting campaign and to offer higher wages, enhanced benefits or improved working conditions to attract and retain new employees. Selection techniques Application blanks, interviews, letters of recommendation, assessment centers and psychological tests. Usually a combination of techniques is used. In the U. S. Testing for drug use is no w widespread for all types of Jobs. Also, there is an increased concern for AIDS and some organizations screen their applicants for the HIVE. Some scientists have suggested that in the future, genetic testing may be applied to identify applicants who may be sensitive to certain chemicals used in the workplace and to predict those individuals who are likely to develop specific diseases. Testing the Selection Techniques Every new selection program must be investigated to determine its predictive accuracy or validity. This is done by evaluating the performance of the employees selected by the new procedures, through e. G. Supervisor ratings of their performance. By comparing hose ratings with the performance on the selection techniques we can determine how the 2 measures correlate. Did the selection techniques predict which of the applicants turned out to be the better workers? Based on the results, we either keep or modify our selection procedures. Fair Employment Practices 1972: regulations of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) > all Job applicants regardless of race, religion, sex or national origin are guaranteed equal opportunities for employment > discrimination on such grounds is illegal. Adverse impact When a minority group of applicants or employees is treated markedly worse than he majority group in personnel decisions, that minority group is said to be the target of adverse impact in the selection process. Any selection rate for a minority group that is less than 80% of the selection rate for the majority group is evidence of adverse impact > the company could be challenged in court for maintaining different rejection rates for minority and majority applicants, but other evidence would also have to be presented and not Just statistical documentation. Dilatoriness Stetsons Interviews and application blanks have been greatly affected by nondiscrimination isolation because questions that discriminate against a particular group can lead to lawsuits. No questions can be asked that identify applicants national origin, race, or color. Applicants cannot be asked to name their birthplace or that of their relatives, to identify their religious affiliation, or to give the maiden names of female relatives. It is also unlawful to inquire about the clubs or societies to which the applicants belong and to ask them to submit photographs with their employment applications. It is lawful to ask if applicants have ever been convicted of any crime (as conviction loud be considered relevant to Job performance in certain instance such as when someone convicted for embezzlement applies for a Job as a bank teller), but it is unlawful to ask if someone has ever been arrested because members of certain minority groups are much more likely to be arrested on suspicion of wrongdoing. Reverse Discrimination Equal Opportunities legislation has sometimes resulted in discrimination against members of the majority group > reverse discrimination: the phenomenon that may occur when recruiting, hiring, promotion and other personnel decisions in favor of embers of a minority group result in discrimination against members of the majority group. A 4-year study of 13,509 employees in scientific and engineering occupations found that women and blacks had greater promotion opportunities than equally qualified white men (Sheehan, 1992). Persons hired or promoted on an affirmative action basis may be stigmatize in this way. New legislation notes that the rights of the majority group must not be unnecessarily restrained in the effort to help minorities and that minorities should not be hired or promoted solely on the basis of percentages. Other targets of discrimination Older workers The work force is aging. Life expectancy is increasing and health in later life is improving. At the same time, working lives have been getting shorter with a trend towards early retirement. Old age formally starts at the point of retirement: 60 for women, 65 for men, but older workers are considered the ones who are above 50 years AT age. However, management still prefers to hire younger workers, despite consistent evidence from 1/0 psychology research that older workers are as productive and sometimes more so, as younger workers and have lower absenteeism and turnover rates. In general, older employees do not suffer from poorer health, diminished vigor or declining mental abilities when compared with younger employees. Studies of about 24,000 persons in managerial Jobs in the manufacturing, clerical and service sectors of the work force found that age was positively related to performance in highly complex and cognitively challenging Jobs and that performance declined with age only in less demanding Jobs such as low-level clerical or repetitive assembly-line work (Viola, Walden McDaniel, 1990). However, the stereotypes about older workers persist. They receive more negative reference evaluations than younger workers > a meta-analysis of studies of ratings of older employees found that workers 34 years old and younger tended to give less favorable ratings to workers aged 55 and older than they did to younger workers (Finniest, Burke Raja, 1995). Older workers are protected by law against ageism (discrimination in hiring and promotion with regard to age). The emphasis in the developed world should shift from planning for early retirement towards encouraging longer working lives. In Finland, the government has taken an active approach towards the employment of elder people for some years > longitudinal research program: the Finance project > developed the concept of work ability to assess the ability of workers to do their Job and to predict quality of life > increasing heterogeneity in work ability amongst older groups of workers > Nation-level action programs to promote health and lifestyle, to make adjustments to the physical work environments and to design work and organizational systems more carefully to the needs of older workers (adjustments include improved workplace design to reduce the physical workload, regular updating of professional skills and knowledge, and the introduction of more flexible scheduling of work, for example, by introducing micro-pauses following peak loads). Different countries have adopted different approaches to the issue of ageing, work and health due to their policies towards labor market intervention as well as the organizat ion of their health care systems. A major factor is whether health care is supported through employer-funded insurance or through general taxation. Workers with disabilities Employees with physical and mental disabilities are protected by law against Job Localization. Employers are required to make reasonable accommodations to ten physical or mental impairments of a qualified applicant or employee with a disability if it would not impose an undue hardship on normal business operations. Defining the term disability has proven difficult and requires some 60 pages of government regulations: in general, a person is considered disabled if s/he has a physical or cognitive impairment that limits one or more major life activities. [sensory impairment: vision or hearing disabilities, motor impairment, cognitive impairment: learning disabilities, speech impairment, mental retardation]. Research has shown that disabled employees perform as well as or better than nondurable employees do. Job opportunities for disabled persons vary as a function of type of disability: Pl with impairments of vision, hearing or motor skills experience greater difficulty obtaining employment than Pl with less disabling conditions. Women workers Women face discrimination particularly when applying for what are still considered to be traditionally male Jobs. Once hired, women receive lower wages than men with similar skills and qualifications that are performing the same Jobs do. Gender-based wage discrimination: lower pay for comparable worth. Comparable worth: the idea that Jobs that require comparable or equivalent skills should receive comparable compensation. Thus, discrimination against women today may occur less in the hiring process but more in terms of pay and promotion. Discrimination based on sexual orientation Gay men and lesbian women face discrimination in hiring in public agencies and private companies. Some companies, such as ATT, Xerox and Levi Strauss actively sponsor support groups and networks for their gay employees. Discrimination based on physical attractiveness Beautys: Judgment based on a pleasing physical appearance > has shown to affect ring and promotion decisions. Many Pl Delve Tanat phonically attractive persons also possess more sealed personality and social traits. A bias against overweight Job applicants has also been found. Job Analysis Job analysis: the study of a Job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers. Includes information about the tools or equipment used, the operations performed, the education and training required, the wages paid and any unique aspects of the job such as safety hazards. Essential for employee selection and the design of training programs. Also, it helps in he design of Jobs and workspaces for more efficient performance. Example: if an operator has to walk a long distance from the machine to the storage shelves every time it is necessary to replenish the supply of raw material, this wasted time and effort can be eliminated be redesigning the work area. Job analysis can also uncover safety hazards or dangerous operating procedures. It can also be applied to the development of Job evaluations which are used to determine appropriate wages for various Jobs > in order to determine fair pay, judgments are made by experts that are based on Job analyses after the collection ND evaluation of data from large numbers of employees on such Job-related factors as the specific skills required, the level of education, the level of responsibility and the consequences of making errors. 2 basic approaches to Job analysis: the Job-oriented approach and the worker- oriented approach. The Job-oriented approach: focuses on the specific tasks involved in performing a Job and on the Job outcome or level of productivity. The worker-oriented approach focuses on worker behaviors on the Job and on the specific skills, abilities and personal traits needed to perform the Job. Most Job analyses involve a combination of Job-oriented and worker-oriented data. Interviews: used in Job analysis and involve extensive meetings with the persons directly connected with the Job: the workers performing the Job and their supervisors, and sometimes the instructors who trained the workers for the Job. I nose Interviews may De supplemented Day quaternaries. Questionnaires: 2 types used: the unstructured one and the structured one. In the unstructured or open-end approach, the subject matter experts describe in their own words the components of the Job and the tasks performed. In the structured approach, workers and supervisors are provided with descriptions of tasks, operations and working conditions and are asked to rate the items or to select those items that characterize their Jobs. Length of Job experience and race have been shown to influence the content of the lob analysis. Level of education and gender have only minimal effects. A widely used questionnaires is the PAS: Position Analysis Questionnaire: consists of 194 Job elements related to specific behaviors. These elements are organized into 6 categories of Job behavior: information input, manila processes, work output, legislations with other persons, Job context and other Job activities and conditions. Subject matter experts rate each element for its importance to the Job in question. Such quantifiable ratings have an advantage over the kind of information yielded by the unstructured questionnaire. Direct observation: direct observation of the workers on the Job. But Pl may behave differently when they are being watched, so it is necessary for the Job analysts to remain as unobtrusive as possible. Also, they should observe a representative sample of workers and make observations at various times throughout he workday to take account of changes caused by such factors as fatigue. Systematic Activity Logs: workers maintain a detailed written record of their activities during a given period. Critical Incidents: The critical-incidents technique is a means of identifying specific actions or behaviors that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the Job. It is based on identification of those incidents that are necessary to successful Job performance. The goal is to have subject matter experts indicate the behaviors that differentiate good from poor workers. A single critical incident is of little value, but undress of them can effectively describe a Job task sequence in terms of the unique behaviors required to perform it well. Research comparing the effectiveness of various approaches to Job analysis indicates that they vary in their usefulness. The choice of a specific technique must depend on the organizations reasons for conducting the analysis in the first place. Unless the purpose of the Job analysis is stated (e. G. Refining a selection or training program), the company cannot make an informed decision about which technique to use or what kind of information to seek. But generally, a combination of methods provides

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Canadian Inventor Organizations

Canadian Inventor Organizations Who governs and decides intellectual property law in Canada? Where can you get intellectual property protection that provides coverage in Canada. The answer is CIPO - the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Note: Does a patent in Canada protect rights in other countries? No. Patent laws are national so you must obtain a patent in each country in which you want protection. Did you know that 95% of Canadian patents and 40% of US patents were granted to foreign nationals? Canadian Intellectual Property Office English/French language The Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), a Special Operating Agency (SOA) associated with Industry Canada, is responsible for the administration and processing of the greater part of intellectual property in Canada. CIPOs areas of activity include: patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial designs, and integrated circuit topographies. Canadian Patent LawThe Manual of Patent Office Practice (MOPOP) is maintained to ensure that it reflects the latest developments in the Canadian patent laws and practices. Patent and Trademark Databases If your idea has ever been patented before, you will not eligible for a patent. While hiring a professional is recommended an inventor should do at least preliminary search themselves and if capable a complete search. One purpose of a trademark search is to determine if someone has already trademarked your intended mark. Search Engine for Canadian PatentsThis database lets you access over 75 years of patent descriptions and images. You can search, retrieve and study more than 1,400,000 patent documents.International Patent SearchesSearch Engine for Canadian TrademarksThe search result(s) will contain the Trade-mark, Status, Application number, and Registration number (if it exists) of the document.International Trademark Searches Patent Classification Patent classification is a numbered filing system that helps manage the huge databases of patents. Patents are assigned a class number and name (not to be mistaken for issue number) based on what type of invention it is. Since 1978 Canada has used the International Patent Classification (IPC) which is maintained by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), one of 16 specialised agencies of the United Nations. International Patent Classification (IPC) Support, Funding Awards - National Industry CanadaPrograms and Services - By SubjectCanadian Technology NetworkIf you run a small or medium-sized technology related business in Canada, the Canadian Technology Network can give you access to a wide range of technology and related business assistance through a cross-country network of advisors.Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP)IRAP has four main components:Technology Expertise and Advisory ServicesFinancial Assistance for RD activitiesNetworkingPartnershipsCanadian enterprises with under 500 employees and industrial associations desiring to enhance their technological capability are eligible for support.Ernest C. Manning Awards FoundationAwards by nomination Canadians who have demonstrated recent innovative talent in developing and successfully marketing a new concept, process or procedure, may be eligible for one of these awards: Principal Award ($100,000), Award of Distinction ($25,000), Innovation Awards (2 at $10,000). Continue Provincial National Western Economic Diversification CanadaFunding and other help for western Canadians. Alberta Calgary Innovation CentreThe Calgary Innovation Centre is a unique mentoring service established to help early stage companies grow revenue, address immediate business problems, and understand which financing options are available to grow their business. The services of the Calgary Innovation Centre are available at no cost to entrepreneurs in the technology sector. Alberta Research Council ServicesFounded in 1921 as a provincial research council, the Alberta Research Council Inc develops and commercializes technology. ARC will perform applied research and development for you on a contract basis or co-venture with you to develop new technologies, earning a return on investment from the commercialization of products and processes. Their strengths are in the agriculture, energy, environment, forestry, health and manufacturing industries. Their investment focus is on technology platforms based on capabilities developed for these industries. ARC hires permanent, temporary, casual and sea sonal employees (inventors and engineers). Advanced Education and TechnologyLook under Technology Priorities to learn about innovative scientific research, development and application activities happening in Alberta. Other sections include information on scholarships, careers, trades, and more. British Columbia British Columbia Institute of TechnologyProvides support and funding for BCIT students and faculty.Innovation Resource CentreProvides support to new and established entrepreneurs through both one to one advising as well as workshops and seminars. BC Innovation CouncilFunds a range of programs that support and encourage established and emerging innovators.Kootenay Association for Science Technology (KAST0)Sci-Tech NorthVancouver Enterprise Forum (VEF)SmartSeed IncT-Net British Columbia Local Community Clubs Groups British Columbia Inventors SocietyVancouver Electric Vehicle AssociationVancouver Robotics ClubSouth Vancouver Island Inventors c/o John A. Mayzel 1931 Hampshire Road, Victoria, BC Canada V8R 5T9 Manitoba Manitoba Inventors’ Society Saskatchewan National Ontario Quà ©bec Monde des Inventions Quà ©bà ©coisesLAssociation des inventeurs du Quà ©bec est un organisme sans but lucratif dont la mission est daider, encadrer et soutenir les inventeurs quà ©bà ©cois, dà ©fendre leurs droits et protà ©ger leurs intà ©rà ªts. National New Brunswick Newfoundland Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Innovation CorporationInNOVAcorp is a Nova Scotia company that promotes, stimulates and encourages the successful development of technology products and services for emerging entrepreneurs in the life sciences and IT industry. Supporting all of these activities is InNOVAcorps Corporate Services group. They source new projects, facilitate corporate planning, organize corporate marketing and maintain the corporations IT architecture. Prince Edward Island

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Auditing and Assurance Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Auditing and Assurance Services - Essay Example The objective of the paper signifies the importance of the auditory system along with the reliance level that can be provided towards the audit process. This paper also intends to reflect on the pros and cons of the auditory as well as assurance services that need to be present in the financial statement of the organizations. The auditing process of an organization or a firm involves with the model of accountability, inspection of the monetary reports along with the financial demands for assessment of the auditory system. The audit process in this regards provide with the statements which significantly fulfill the gap of expectations between the user and the financial statements. The auditing process for the organization generally involves with the convenient regulation dealing with control tools of the system. Conducting an auditing and assurance program also assists an organization for the critical assessment of the financial statements with the proper evidence. In this context the application of tools as well as techniques examine the main revenue along with the cost activities of the firm. Management representation of the organization, identifying the errors as well as the weaknesses of the financial activities of the firm is also an important responsibility of the audit process for the organization. Therefore, documentation of the audit and assurance shall provide the management with valuable assistance in taking the initiatives according to the review of the financial statements that were prepared in the audit process of the organization. The assurance service of the auditing process further helps the auditors to keep the record of the evidence in the auditing process of the firm (Pearsoned, â€Å"An Introduction to Auditing and Assurance†). With regards to the pros and cons of the process in the auditing system, it can be said that it may help to forecast the future cost activities of the firm along with the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Diabetes Patients Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Diabetes Patients - Case Study Example Administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was mainly to manage the presumed cellulitis. The doctors recommended insulin therapy after a series of medication on oral hypoglycaemic drugs. After consultations, the visiting surgeons recommended continued abdominal imaging to the patient. Abdominal imaging however, however, was not possible since the 45-year-old woman was too obese to fit in the CT scan. She could not fit in MRI due to her obesity. The doctors finally treated the woman’s abdominal pain using opiates after thorough medical observation. The current treatment care for the 45 year old woman is the six one after a series of medication and obesity management. The forty-five year old has also been suffering from frequent thirst and urination. Her status worsened six months ago after admission with hyperglycemia and later for a patient care program for management. The 45-year-old woman’s daughter also suffers from obesity. The daughter frequently complains of severe abdominal pain (Blak et al., 2012a, p. 2). Obesity proves to be a serious problem in the modern world. Doctors in United Kingdom hospitals report many cases of obesity caused complications daily. Brunello et al., 2009, p. 2, discusses that obesity is a function of the body mass index. Doctors consider a body mass index greater than 25 kilogram per meters square as an overweight. Information from Management of obesity in adults,† 2004, p. 1 suggest that patients suffering from morbidly obesity have body mass index greater than 40 kilograms per meters square while obese weight patients have a body mass index greater than 30 kilograms per meters square. Obese individuals have higher probabilities of contracting associated illnesses such as diabetes, heart attack or kidney failure, respiratory problems, urinary stress incontinence and cancer. Health research indicates that morbid obese women are infertile. Mahmood and Arulkumaran, 2012, p. 405, elaborates that infertility of such women results from the changing levels of estrogen and progesterone that consequently affects regularity of menstrual cycle and fertility. The forty-year old was overweight, complained of frequent chest pains, and had polyuria symptoms.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Marketing Mix Essay Example for Free

Marketing Mix Essay Broadly speaking, in order to maximise profits, different firms use distinct tools to perform strategy and decisions, such as SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis and marketing mix analysis. In terms of the marketing mix, as an important concept in the subject of business studies, it refers to â€Å"a balance between the four main elements of marketing [is] needed to carry out the marketing strategy. It consists of the ‘4ps’: product, price, promotion and place† (MarcouseÃŒ  and Surridge et al., 2011:141). Firms can build an effective marketing strategy by using the marketing mix as a tool, and it is possible that business will fail if the marketing mix is not correct. The aim of the essay is to analyse elements of the marketing mix. Initially, it will discuss four elements, which are the product, price, place and promotion respectively. Then, it will evaluate the most vital component in the marketing mix, which is the product. The first component of the marketing mix is the product. â€Å"A product is a good or service produced by a business or organization, and made available to the public for consumption† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008). Each product has a different feature, which could be the unique selling points of them. Roams and Cota (2008:152) attempt to define this term is, â€Å"A unique selling point (USP) is a short statement that explains why a customer should buy from you instead of your competitorsin. For example, Apple Corporation has a unique and independent operation system for their iPhone. It has been argued that there are three levels of product, first of which is core or generic product (Levitt, 1986:361). This is the basic and general physical product, in other words, it is the product that has minimum features and the consumer would expect it to have. In a microwave oven example, it should have enough space inside to put food and it would be expected to work effectively. The second level of the product is known as actual or tangible product. This is, touchable and physical property of the product. Young (2008:130) suggests this level of product will contain the product’s name, style, brand name, label, packaging and quality level. This level of product provides a material and a clearer image of the product to customers. The next and last level is called augmented product. Leader and Kyritsis (1990:12) explain this product provides privileges and additional services to the consumer; it also can reflect the differentiation of the product. For instance, services such as free delivery, discounts and additional purchases. The second element of the marketing mix is price. There are two main factors can determine the price of product, which is price elasticity and pricing strategy respectively. Blythe (2012:154) examines the elasticity of demand will illustrate that different categories have different extent of sensitivity when the price changes. Consequently, it could help firms make a better decision when they set the price. Thompson and Machin (2003:65) support that, â€Å"a business must know how responsive their products are to price changes so that they can assess the potential impact of, say, special offers or a price increase†. The next factor is the pricing strategy. Also, it is more imperative than price elasticity when firms make their price decisions. Firms use a serious of pricing strategies, however, the pricing method of cost plus is used most commonly, which is the basic form of all pricing decisions. It refers to a business calculates the average cost and then add a mark-up to the final selling price. Ashwin and Merrills (2008:347) point out another price strategy is called discriminatory pricing; this means a firm set different price for different target groups. As the description from Thompson and Machin (2003:65), discriminatory price refers to â€Å"different price is charged to different group people at different times†. For instance, a cinema charges a different price for students and adults. Besides, it charges different for daytime and evening showings as well. In addition, psychology-pricing strategy is also used quite frequently in supermarkets. For example, Morrison’s sell a bottle of milk  £1.99 rather than  £2, hence customers will perceive the price as being lower. Levitt (1986) argues discriminatory pricing mainly relies on emotional responses from the consumer. The third component in the marketing mix is the place. It concerns the way in which a product is distributed. Stimpson (2005:16) points out â€Å"the ‘place’ decision involves making the product or service available to  consumers in the most appropriate way†. Distribution channel as the most important factor could affect the decision of the place. There are numbers of factors can determine how the product is distributed. Blythe (2012:173) suggests one of them is the marketing aim. The increasing scale raised enterprise intends to expand as wide a distribution as possible. Furthermore, legal restrictions should be regarded as well. Stone (2001) states there are numerous products are not permitted to sell in some places. For instance, it is forbidden to sell the alcohol at the petrol station. In general, direct distribution, retailers, wholesalers and agent are four core channels of distribution. Direct distribution is the producers sell products to customers directly without intermediaries. Blythe (2012:175) explains this, â€Å"direct distribution channels are typical of personal services such as hairdressing†. For retailers, it is an organization that offers goods to customers. Tesco and Wal-Mart, for example. In addition, Koter (2005) describes that, in many market, wholesalers act as a link between producers and consumers. Wholesalers usually buy goods from manufacturers then sell goods to the final consumers or retailers. In contrast, agents do not actually purchase goods; they only help manufacturers to sell. Thompson and Machin (2003:80) claim that, â€Å" agent never actually owns a product, they usually connect buyers and sellers and manage the transfer of the good†. The final element in the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is not only advertising but also a communication tool between producers and consumers. â€Å"promotion is about communicating with customers and potential customers† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008:331). Promotion is essential for a product because it is able to increase the demand for products. Young (2008) suggests promotion can raise emotion, concern or awareness for products or issues. In addition, promotion can protect and preserve the market share as well. The methods of above the line and below the line are two main types methods of promotion. As for above the line promotion, it refers to a firm uses the advertising media but does not has direct control. The most recognizable  face of advertising is television. Because of it can provide the introduction of product with colorful images. Wolinski and Coates (2008:373) state that, â€Å"television has the advantage of being memorable, as it can present both moving images and sound†. Thompson and Machin (2003:74) examines the below the line promotion includes promotional media over which the firm has control. For example, personal selling, it means a salesman or a sales team who regularly visits consumers in person. Having introduced each element of the marketing mix, the essay will now evaluate the most crucial element in the marketing mix – product. There are two principal reasons for product as the most important element in the marketing mix. First of all, product as the key component makes the entirely process of the link between customers and producers possible. Amount of sales promotion and price reduction will not help an enterprise to achieve their market target if the product is not appropriate and attractable. Stimpson (2005:24) agrees with this view that, â€Å" a balance and integrated mix is essential, but without a product that offers customers real and distinctive benefits, even the best-laid marketing plans can be wasted†. In the mean time, Kazmi (2007), in her work, Marketing Management, suggests that the product or service is the most vital element, without a good product, you have nothing. Furthermore, Adcock and Halborg (2001) sustains that the attention of customers will be attracted if a firm can develop a high quality product, hence, the profits that the firm makes will increase. As a result, the pote ntial for business success is significantly enhanced. The second reason is that products enable to decide a firm’s profits, sales, market share, image, reputation and stature. Additionally, product can also determine the scope and direction of a company’s activity. Product acts a heart in the whole marketing mix. Most of the scholars support that view. Stimpson (2005:24) points out that, â€Å"the product is usually considered to be the most important component of the marketing mix†. Stone (2001) believed that in most case the product itself is the key to a successful marketing mix. However, there will be instances that when other components dominate  the marketing mix. Wolinski and Coates (2008:346) argues that, â€Å" At a festival, only one type of bottled water might be available, so the place is the most important factor†. In contrast, Baker (1991) claims when consumer with limited money might choose the product with the lower price, this is due to consumer has insufficient resources to purchase additi onal products. In this case, price is the most significant component. To recapitulate, the essay has introduced and analysed four elements product, price, place and promotion in the marketing mix. Marketing mix as a tool is able to help firms make efficient business plan and strategy. Each element is playing a very vital role in the marketing mix. Furthermore, the essay has identified the product is the most crucial part since the product is the key component linking between the producers and consumers. It can be concluded that all the elements in the marketing are essential and necessary, while in the most case, product is the most essential component in the marketing mix. An enterprise should coordinate and integrate the four elements so that the firm can build an efficient marketing strategy and achieves more profits as possible. Reference list: Ashwin, A., Merrills, S. and Thompson, R. 2008. Collins biz/ed AS business studies. London: Collins Educational. Baker, M.(1991) Marketing, An Introductory Text, 5th edn. London: Macmillan Education Ltd. Blythe, J. 2012. Essentials of marketing. 5th edn. Harlow: Pearson. Felina C. Young and Cristobal M. Pagoso. 2008. Principles of Marketing 1st edn. Manila: Red Book Store. Kotler, P. 2005. Principles of marketing. 4th edn. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/FinancialTimes. Leader, W. G. and Kyritsis, N. 1990. Fundamentals of marketing. New edn. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Levitt,T.: 1986. The Marketing Imagination. New York: Free express. MarcouseÃŒ , I., Surridge, M. and Gillespie, A. 2011. Business studies for A level. Abingdon, Oxon [UK]: Hodder Education. Ramos, A. and Cota, S. 2008. Search Engine Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Stimpson, P. 2005. Place. Business Review, 11:4-16 Stimpson, P. 2004. The Product Decision. Business Review, 11:1-24 Stone, P. 2001. Make Marketing Work for you. Oxford: How To Books. Thompson, R. and Machin, D. 2003. AS Business Studies.1st edn. London: Collins Educational Wolinski, J. and Coates, G. 2008. AQA AS business studies. 2nd edn. Deddington, Oxfordshire: Philip Allan Updates. a

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Narrative on Brown v. Board of Education Exhibit Essay -- Narrative Pa

Narrative Assignment Walking into a lecture hall in Gregory Hall, I really didn’t know what to expect. I dressed as I would any other day; an Abercrombie shirt, a pair of frayed shorts and some casual sandals. I sat towards the front of the room and arrived slightly early to ensure a good seat. The name of this Brown v. Board education discussion was entitled, "Rethinking Slavery: 1800-1861,† and was arranged by the Mellon initiative. As I waited to observe the audience as they filled the seats with pencil in hand, I was amazed by the amount of diversity I saw before me. By the time the lecture was ready to set foot, I observed that nearly the entire lecture hall was filled. I would say that the hall where our discussion was being held in could probably hold around 300 people. The majority of the audience was not students forced to write a paper on the Brown v. Board Commemoration events, but rather scholars who were on average in their mid-40s. It seemed as though everyone knew each other to some degree. At one point, I saw a woman walk in with her young son and they were greeted by one of the first presenters. Oftentimes, groups of 2 or 3 walked into the room and they would sit down in no particular section of the seating and proceed to talk moderately loudly and peacefully. There was a sense of joy and rejuvenation in the air. After making my final observations of the crowd, I noted that it was a pr edominantly white showing! Not something I would expect to see when attending a discussion on slavery. It was a spectacle for me to see a group of Asian Americans nodding in unison when points were made during the seminar relating to black and white race relations. I would say that African-Americans wer... ...ree topics in detail instead of giving us new incite on slavery? Finally what followed was a short question and answer section. Professor Ira Berlin was so excited about getting food at the following reception that he had to be reminded about the questioning section. How much compassion does that show I wondered? I observed that most of the questions Professor Berlin received were from African-American’s though their presence in the lecture was towards the bottom of the spectrum. The majority of questions that were being asked inferred the level of political correctness in the way in which Berlin addressed certain racial issues. It seemed as though the questions were rather insignificant and that the questioners knew the answers they’d receive before they asked them. After all, wasn’t everyone in that room that attended voluntarily there for the same general cause?

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Globalization: Has it helped Muslim women to gain education? Essay

The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). Aim of Paper This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women Ancient Practices Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. Evolution and Today This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality. Muslim Women’s status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift. Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Globalization: Behind the scenes How Globalization helped? Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. Technology Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education. Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Example of Malaysia Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men. Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of â€Å"Islamic† men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas. The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. Bibliography Introduction Globalization is a process that has been inherent in the society ever since mankind began moving around in search of food on Earth. The realization that globalization is a major phenomenon that has brought about several changes in the lives of people was quite late. The reason behind this was also logical. Globalization in the past was not as accelerated as it has been since the past three to four decades. Things globalized at a much inflated rate during the post-1950s than they did before that (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). The definition of globalization is the integration of world economies into one through increased communication, technology and the elimination of the quota-system and other trade barriers resulting in a global market of buyers and sellers (Najam, Runnals, & Halle, 2006). Though the advantages and disadvantages of globalization are altogether another issue, one thing is certain: it has assisted Muslim women in breaking the vicious circle of false religious ideologies and helped them in gaining education. Though, most of the time, laws have been bent through interpretation loopholes in the religion to safeguard the interests of men and to maintain a level of supremacy over women. This practice has been challenged over the years by social activists and women rights campaigners but the cries have fallen on deaf years. Several incidents and events have occurred corroborating the fact that globalization has helped Muslim women in advancing towards knowledge and education (â€Å"Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. †, 2006). This paper will be discussing how actually globalization has contributed towards the improvement in the situation of Muslim women in seeking education. The historical evolution of the status of Women Ancient Practices One of the most blatant truths of mankind is the fact that religious constraints and masculine dominance have always been dominant over women. From the times of the pre-historic man to the times of renaissance, women were always considered to be a kind of commodity to be owned by men and used as per their will. Sons used to inherit their fathers’ wives and women-trade was always a profitable business for merchants all across the Roman Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. The United Kingdom too was no exception to the treatment (or rather lack of it) towards women; women were not allowed to vote or take part in the government till as late as the 18th century. However, things gradually began to change in the European countries and USA. People began to realize the equality of men and women and from there began the actualization movements to provide equal statuses to men and women and to eradicate gender discrimination. Evolution and Today Today in most developed nations, the concept of gender discrimination is smirked at, women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men and are entitled to the same treatment. This change process took decades and today American and European countries can accurately declare that women living there are free from implied prejudice and partiality (Muzaffar, 2009). Muslim Women’s Status However the change process for Muslim women has not been either so complete or so swift. Even today there are several regions where the treatment of women is deeply rooted in ignorant beliefs and values. Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq and Malaysia have the largest populations of Muslims in the world. The rights of women in these countries are highly influenced by Islam. Islamic principles and shariah law have been the foundations upon which the rights of men, women and society have been drafted. Globalization: Behind the scenes Religious ideologies and Islamic misinterpretations have long denied women their fundamental rights of education and independence in non-secular countries – examples include the tribal areas of Afghanistan; Pakistan; extremist areas in Kashmir, Central India and Gujrat; Saudi Arabia; Morocco and Kenya. On one pretext or the other men have used Islam as the sword (without realizing that Islam has no such injunctions) to cut short the rights of women in a modern world. How Globalization Helped? However globalization has been the silent factor providing empowerment to women across the globe and granting them access to education. Globalization changed the international alignment of businesses bringing about more foreign direct investment and joint collaborations. Women in states where Islam was cited as the keystone governing all their behavior and rights found that globalization resulted in exposure of the maltreatments against them. Media and foreign activists have initiated several campaigns in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the past decade (some of them being as a result of 9/11 influx). The revelation of the actual state of women in these troubled areas led to federal control and social activists’ involvements in these areas. These groups developed schools, colleges, abolished the previous customs and illicit practices in the shroud of religion and made sure that the sanctity of women was upheld (Muzaffar, 2009). The major role of globalization was the increased integration of regional economies which made dependency and mutuality inevitable for countries and regions within. Countries could no longer remain aloof of the international market as globalization brought them closer together in terms of social, economic, political and cultural dependence (Apple, Kenway, & Singh, 2005). The major hand of globalization in helping Muslim women develop education was the spread of education itself. Globalization led to the creation of awareness, self-actualization and increased commitment and cooperation resulting in more schools, colleges and universities being built. In countries like Malaysia and Pakistan, the number of universities grew with great pace over the past twenty years. Though the change in ideology and Islamic understanding was not visible in the tribal areas of Pakistan due to ignorance and lack of integration with federal rule, Malaysia today boasts of a modernized society where women are empowered and enjoy equal status rights as men. The illusion that Islam confines women to within the household was a widely held belief in such nations and is still today the chief limiting factor for the development of women in Pakistan’s tribal areas (Hassan, 2006). Education Education, as a result of globalization, resulted in the reality crashing upon the heads of the people who were rooted earlier in ignorance and blind faith. The â€Å"muftis† and sermon-givers of Islam who hardly possessed enough knowledge to save their own skins propagated misleading Islamic â€Å"fatwas† relating to the rights of women forcing them into confinement and imposing undue restrictions over them. However, globalization increased the synergy between different educated and learned men and women of Islam bringing about a correction of faith, ideas and beliefs. Thus, several hundred schools and colleges have been built for the education and counseling of women in rural Afghanistan and Pakistan. Women from backward areas have been able to move ahead with the advent of globalization through increased opportunities and exposure to people who are willing to work towards the uplift of women (Maisami, 2003). A secondary effect of globalization that helped women progress was the increased need for skilled labor and competition. Since the tariff system was done away with by the World Trade Organization (WTO) reforms, sellers found that overnight they had lost their competitive advantage – now buyers could select from an international market and choose the lowest prices without trade restrictions. This brought a desire for competition amongst the medium-sized sellers and growth amongst the large sellers. The small fishes could not do much as survival was a zero possibility for them. Thus, women were required to bring in expertise and newer ideas in some of the medium sized businesses in the developing nations. Fuelled by this demand, more and more women found opportunities knocking on their doors and calling them towards empowerment. Though there is not much literature available to support this phenomenon, I believe that my interaction with friends in Pakistan has given me a fair idea of the reality of this happening (Muzaffar, 2006). Evidence Technology has been one of the most important reasons behind the improvement of womens’ conditions in terms of education. Women confined to the four walls of houses have been able to benefit from the use of technology and gain education. Determination and courage leads to success – it has been so in the case for women who have broken their jinx and acquired education only through the use of Internet. These women have been the ones whose parents and husbands have not been extremists, thus allowing them the use of technologies such as the Internet. Otherwise, in 99% of the non-secular areas, technology is abhorred as much as Western contact and modernization (Hassan, 2006). Modernization, according to the extremists is â€Å"wearing jeans, using a mobile phone and speaking in English†. People with such mindsets have been severe impediments for their women in the path to acquiring education. Evidence Malaysian women are one of the most progressive sect of Muslim women across the globe. Their modesty or integrity has not changed – most women still follow the â€Å"hijab† which is customary to ensure modesty in women – however, their approach to life has transformed greatly. Working alongside men and performing chores which even today is thought of to be â€Å"a man’s job† in most backward Muslim regions, Malaysian women display the true sense of how globalization has assisted them in overpowering false Islamic ideologies built and propagated in the name of religion only to bring shame to it (Altwaijri, 2006). Conclusion Globalization has been a major player in provoking the exposure of the false ideological practices of â€Å"Islamic† men who used religion as the tool to keep themselves one step further of women in all areas. The advent of media coverage and social groups’ involvement in the countries where Muslim women were forced into ignorance has led to education being spread to them. The times of forced ignorance and support from misleading â€Å"mullahs† on the part of Muslim men trying to oppress women is now a matter of confinement to the areas which are still not much in contact with the rest of the world. Globalization has thereof been a major contributor to the ease with which Muslim women have been able to gain access to education. Without the advent of globalization, communication and technological barriers would have had kept Muslim women stagnant and at bay. It has been the increasing inter-mingling of international communities which has given Muslim women the opportunity to move ahead with the rest of the world. In conclusion, globalization forces will continue to provide more opportunities for Muslim women to gather education and break the barriers of religious idealism that have long kept their talent within the limits of their houses (Mirjana, 2006). Bibliography Altwaijri, Abdulaziz Othman. â€Å"The Islamic World and Globalization. † ISESCO. Org. 26 July 2008 . The above reference was quite relvant to the topic of how globalization affects the Islamic world. The basic effects were used and then the impact upon Muslim women was easier to build up upon. Hassan, R. (2006). Islam in the Area of Globalization. Globalization, modernity and identity ar fundamental issues in contemporary Islam and Islamic Studies. , 175-189. This article discusses the major issues and complexes that Muslim men hold against women so that their behavior has been very aggressive and has led to oppression of women. Maisami, Mona. â€Å"Islam and Globalization. † The Fountain. July-September 2003. 27 July 2008 Very helpful in documenting the issues that were removed through globalization. Discusses to a certain extent the women issues as well. Mirjana Radovi, M. (2006). The Perspective of Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Age of Globalization. Information Age Publishing , 3-14. This article was a snapshot of the whole document which provided the women issues and how globalization impacts women in gaining education. Muzaffar, Chandra. â€Å"Globalization and Religion: Some Reflections. † ReadingIslam. com. 29 June 2002. 9 May 2009 This article discusses the religious ideologies that have been cited as reasons for limiting the movement of women and keeping them from growing independent. Apple, M. W. ; Kenway, J. ; & Singh, M. (Eds. ). (2005). Globalizing Education: Policies, Pedagogies and Politics. New York: Peter Lang. The typical Muslim mentality regarding the independence and education of women is discussed in detail which helps in building up a nice conclusion. â€Å"Who Speaks for Islam? Who Speaks for the West? The Impact of Globalization on the Muslim World. † New York University’s Dialogues: Islamic World-U. S. -The West. 10-11 February 2006. 24 July 2008 . The most relevant article for this topic which provided the largest literature review on the topic.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Formal Report Exp 9

University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF TEST TO CLASSIFY HYROXY- AND CARBONYL-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS Jane Catherine SP. Villanueva, Edenn Claudine C. Villaraza, Lorenz Oliver C. Villegas and Cristel Bernice T. Wee Group 10 2G-Medical Technology Organic Chemistry Laboratory ABSTRACT Hydroxyl group refers to a functional group containing OH- when it is a substituent in an organic compound. It is also known as the characteristic functional group of alcohols and phenols. On the other hand, carbonyl group refers to a divalent chemical unit consisting of a carbon and an oxygen atom connected by a double bond. It is known as the characteristic functional group of aldehydes and ketones instead. In this experiment, hydroxyl- or carbonyl- containing samples were given to the group for examination. The samples were analyzed through different tests namely the involvement of the solubility of alcohols in water, the Lucas Test, the Chromic Acid Test or also known as Jones Oxidation, the 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) Test, the Fehling’s Test, the Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test, and the Iodoform Test. The solubility of alcohols in water test showed that the sample, benzyl alcohol was immiscible while ethanol was the most miscible from all the other compounds used. While in Lucas Test which was used to differentiated the primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols had turned tert-butyl alcohol into a cloudy solution afterwards. In Chromic Acid Test which was a test for oxidizable compounds or any compounds that possess reducing property would yield to a blue green solution if it reacted positively. This was seen in all the sample used in this test except for acetone. Whereas Dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) Test was preformed to test for aldehydes and ketones which would result to a yellow orange precipitate if it was positively reacted. All the compounds subjected to this test namely n-butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde and acetone gave a positive result. Fehling’s Test and Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test were used to tests for aldehydes. In Fehling Test, both the n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde gave a positive result which was a brick red precipitate but acetone gave a negative result which was only a blue solution. While the Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test had shown that both n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde gave a positive result which was a silver mirror and then again acetone gave a negative result which was the absence of a silver mirror. Lastly Iodoform test was performed and was known as a test for methyl carbinol and methyl carbonyl groups. Both acetone and isopropyl alcohol resulted to a positive outcome in this test which was formation of yellow precipitate but n-butyraldehyde on the other hand yield to a negative result which was a yellow solution containing black precipitate. INTRODUCTION In organic chemistry, classification of test was tests that categorize a substance into one of several classes. They were used to detect functional groups and other structural features. Alcohol were derivatives of hydrocarbons in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group. Hydrocarbons are compounds which contain hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) only. The hydroxyl group imparts particular properties to the radical to which it is attached. [1] Figure 1. Alcohol Alcohols are classified into three categories: primary (1 °), secondary (2 °) and tertiary (3 °). This classification is based on the number of carbon-containing groups (R for an alkyl or an aromatic group) attached to the carbon bearing the hydroxyl group. If the carbon bearing the OH has one R group, the molecule is a primary alcohol. If two R groups are attached, it is then a secondary alcohol. If three R groups are attached, then the alcohol is tertiary[1][4] Figure 2. Three alcohol groups There are other molecules that contain an -OH group. Even though water (H2O) contains OH, it is not considered as an alcohol because alcohols were defined as organic compounds that have little or no ionization of the ydrogen. Other organic compounds that contain -OH groups but are not alcohols are phenol (C6H5OH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). These compounds are not alcohols because they are acidic. The term alcohol, then, is another representation of a type of electronic structure in the molecules of substances. [3] [4] Phenols are aromatic compounds in which a hydroxide group is directly bon ded to an aromatic ring system. They are very weak acids, and like alcohols, form ethers and esters. The main phenols are phenol itself, cresol, resorcinol, pyrogallol, and picric acid. Phenol itself (C6H5OH), also known as carbolic acid, is a white, hygroscopic crystalline solid, isolable from coal tar, but made by acid hydrolysis of cumene hydroperoxide, or by fusion of sodium benzenesulfonate with sodium hydroxide. Formerly used as an antiseptic, phenol has more latterly been used to make bakelite and other resins, plastics, dyes, detergents, and drugs. [4] [15] The hydroxyl- containing compounds used in the experiment were ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol. Ethanol also known as ethyl alcohol is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Its low freezing point has made it useful as the fluid in thermometers for temperatures below –40 °C, the freezing point of mercury, and for other low-temperature purposes, such as for antifreeze in automobile radiators. Ethanol is miscible in all proportions with water and with most organic solvents. It is useful as a solvent for many substances and in making perfumes, paints, lacquer, and explosives. 15] Figure 3. Structure of Ethanol n-butyl alcohol also known as n-butanol, 1-Butanol or 1-butyl alcohol is a four carbon straight chain alcohol. It is a volatile, clear liquid with a strong alcoholic odor, and is miscible with water. It is a highly refractive compound which corrodes some plastics, and rubbers. It is miscible with many organic solvents, and incompatible with strong oxidizers. It is also used as a direct solvent and as an intermediate in the manufacture of other organic chemicals. [7] Figure 4. Structure of n-butyl alcohol Sec-butyl alcohol, a four carbon secondary alcohol, is a volatile, clear liquid with a strong alcoholic odor with a water solubility of 12. 5%. This substance is most hazardous when peroxide levels are concentrated by distillation or evaporation. It is a highly refractive compound which corrodes some plastics, and rubbers. It is miscible with many organic solvents, and incompatible with strong oxidizers. It is flammable strongly with a luminous flame. It is used as a direct solvent and as an intermediate in the manufacture of other organic chemicals. [8] Figure 5. Structure of Sec-butyl alcohol Tert-butyl alcohol is a clear, noncorrosive liquid. It is miscible with water as well as most common organic solvents. The sterically hindered tertiary butyl group imparts stability compared to primary and secondary alcohols. As a result, the solubility and oxidative stability characteristics provide many industrial applications as a reaction and process solvent and chemical intermediate. It is used as a non-reactive solvent for chemical reactions, a non-surfactant compatibilizer for many solvent blends, and a non-corrosive solvent. It is used in free radical polymerizations to dissolve monomers. TBA is a main raw material of tert-butyl functional group in organic synthesis. [9] Figure 6. Structure of Tert-butyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol also known as propan-2-ol, 2-propanol is a common name for a chemical compound with the molecular formula C3H8O. It is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. It is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon is attached to two other carbons. Being a secondary alcohol, isopropyl alcohol can be oxidized to acetone, which is the corresponding ketone. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It is also relatively non-toxic and evaporates quickly. Thus it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving lipophilic contaminants such as oil. [10] Figure 7. Structure of Isopropyl alcohol Benzyl alcohol (C6H5CH2OH) is a colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. It is a useful solvent due to its polarity, low toxicity, and low vapor pressure. Benzyl alcohol is partially soluble in water (4  g/100  mL) and completely miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether. Like most alcohols, it reacts with carboxylic acids to form esters. Benzyl alcohol is used as a general solvent for inks, paints, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. It is also a precursor to a variety of esters, used in the soap, perfume, and flavor industries. It is often added to intravenous medication solutions as a preservative due to its bacteriostatic and antipruritic properties. [15] Figure 8. Structure of Benzyl alcohol Carbonyl group is a divalent chemical unit consisting of a carbon and an oxygen atom connected by a double bond. The group is a constituent of carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides, acyl halides, amides, and quinones, and it is the characteristic functional group of aldehydes and ketones. Carboxylic acid and their derivatives, aldehydes, ketones, and quinones are also known collectively as carbonyl compounds. Aldehydes and ketones contain carbonyl groups attached to alkyl or aryl groups and a hydrogen atom or both. These groups have little effect on the electron distribution in the carbonyl group; thus, the properties of aldehydes and ketones are determined by the behavior of the carbonyl group. In carboxylic acids and their derivatives, the carbonyl group is attached to one of the halogen atoms or to groups containing atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. These atoms do affect the carbonyl group, forming a new functional group with distinctive properties. Figure 9. Carbonyl Group An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. This functional group, called an aldehyde group, consists of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single covalent bond and an oxygen atom with a double bond. Thus the chemical formula for an aldehyde functional group is -CH=O, and the general formula for an aldehyde is R-CH=O. The aldehyde group is occasionally called the formyl or methanoyl group. The word aldehyde is a combination of parts of the words alcohol and dehydrogenated, because the first aldehyde was prepared by removing two hydrogen atoms (dehydrogenation) from ethanol. Molecules that contain an aldehyde group can be converted to alcohols by the addition of two hydrogen atoms to the central carbon oxygen double bond (reduction). Organic acids are the result of the introduction of one oxygen atom to the carbonyl group (oxidation). Aldehydes are very easy to detect by smell. Some are very fragrant, and others have a smell resembling that of rotten fruit. [15] On the other hand, Ketone features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. They differ from aldehydes in that the carbonyl is placed between two carbons rather than at the end of a carbon skeleton. They are also distinct from other functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides, which have a carbonyl group bonded to a hetero atom. Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. [15] The difference between aldehydes and ketones is in the groups that are attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. In the case of an aldehyde, there is always at least one H atom attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. An aldehyde has one R group attached. R stands for any other organic chain or group. In the case of ketones, there are no H atoms attached to the carbonyl carbon. The ketone has two R groups attached. [2] [15] Figure 10. Structure of Aldehyde and Ketone Some of the carbonyl-containing compounds used in the experiment were benzaldehyde, n-butraldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) also known as benzenecarbonal is a colorless liquid aldehyde with a characteristic almond odor. It boils at 180 °C, is soluble in ethanol, but is insoluble in water. It is formed by partial oxidation of benzyl alcohol, and on oxidation forms benzoic acid. It is called oil of bitter almond, since it is formed when amygdalin, a glucoside present in the kernels of bitter almonds and in apricot pits, is hydrolyzed, e. . , by crushing the kernels or pits and boiling them in water; glucose and hydrogen cyanide (a poisonous gas) are also formed. It is also prepared by oxidation of toluene or benzyl chloride or by treating benzal chloride with an alkali. Benzaldehyde is used in the preparation of certain aniline dyes and of other products, including perfumes and flavorings. [13] Figure 11. Structu re of Benzaldehyde Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) also known as ethanol is a colorless liquid aldehyde, sometimes simply called aldehyde. It is soluble in water and ethanol. Acetaldehyde is made commercially by the oxidation of ethylene with a palladium catalyst. It is used as a reducing agent (e. g. , for silvering mirrors), in the manufacture of synthetic resins and dyestuffs, and as a preservative. [11] Figure 12. Structure of Acetaldehyde n-butyraldehyde (CH3(CH2)2CHO) also known as butanal is an aldehyde derivative of butane. It is a colorless flammable liquid that smells like sweaty feet. It is miscible with most organic solvents. n-butyraldehyde is used as an intermediate in the manufacturing plasticizers, alcohols, solvents and polymers. It is also used as an intermediate to make pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, antioxidants, rubber accelerators, textile auxiliaries, perfumery and flavors. [12] Figure 13. Structure of N-butyraldehyde Acetone ((CH3)2CO) also known as propanone is colorless, mobile, flammable liquid with a characteristic sweetish smell is the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. [6] Figure 14. Structure of Acetone Acetophenone (C6H5C(O)CH3) is the simplest aromatic ketone. This colorless, viscous liquid is a precursor to useful resins and fragrances. It can be obtained by a variety of methods. In industry, acetophenone is recovered as a by-product of the oxidation of ethylbenzene, which mainly gives ethylbenzene hydroperoxide for use in the production of propylene oxide. [5] Figure 15. Structure of Acetophenone The hydroxyl- and carbonyl- containing compounds were analyzed by utilization of different tests such as testing the solubility of alcohols in water, Lucas Test, Chromic Acid Test (Jones Oxidation), 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Test, Fehling’s Test, Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test, and Iodoform Test. Most organic compounds were not soluble in water with the exception of low molecular-weight amines and oxygen-containing compounds like alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones. Low molecular-weight compounds are generally limited to those with fewer than five carbon atoms. [14] Lucas Test often provides classification information for alcohols, as well as a probe for the existence of the hydroxyl group. Substrates that easily give rise to cationic character at the carbon bearing the hydroxyl group undergo this test readily; primary alcohols do not give a positive result. Since the Lucas Test depends on the appearance of the alkyl chloride as a second liquid phase, it is normally applicable only to alcohols that are soluble in the reagent. This limits the test in general to monofunctional alcohols lower than hexyl and certain polyfunctional molecules. [4] Chromic Acid Test also called Jones Oxidation detects the presence of a hydroxyl substituent that is on a carbon bearing at least one hydrogen, and therefore oxidizable. It is detected by the appearance of Cr+3 ion. This test can be used to differentiate aldehydes and ketones. A positive result would show green or blue-green solution. [4] 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Test can be used to qualitatively detect the carbonyl functionality of a ketone or aldehyde functional group. Ketones and Aldehydes would form yellow to orange precipitate after undergoing in this test. [4] Fehling’s Test and Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test are used to detect aldehydes. However, Fehling's solution can only be used to test for aliphatic aldehydes, whereas Tollens' reagent can be used to test for both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. A positive result in Fehling’s Test would give a brick red precipitate while in Tollens' Silver Mirror, it is the formation of silver mirror. [4] Iodoform Test is a test for methyl carbinol and methyl carbonyl group. A positive result would yield to yellow crystals or precipitate. Its mechanism occurs through a series of enolate anions which are iodinated. [4] The objectives of the experiment were to distinguish whether a compound was a hydroxyl- or carbonyl-containing, to differentiate the three types of alcohols, to differentiate aldehydes from ketones and to explain the mechanisms involved in the differentiating tests. EXPERIMENTAL A. Compounds Tested * Ethanol * n-butyl alcohol * Sec-butyl alcohol * Tert-butyl alcohol * Benzyl alcohol * n- butyraldehyde * Benzaldehyde * Acetone * Acetophenone * Isopropyl alcohol * Acetaldehyde * Lucas reagent * Chromic acid reagent * 95% ethanol * Fehling’s A and B * Tollen’s reagent * 5% NaOCl solution * Iodoform test reagent * 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine B. Procedure 1. Testing the solubility of alcohols in water The samples involved in the experiment were ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol. Five test tubes were labeled with each of the alcohol samples. With the aid of a Pasteur pipette, 10 drops from each of the samples were taken then placed into the appropriate test tube. To the tube containing ethanol, 1-ml of water was then added drop wise to the tube containing alcohol and the mixture was shaken thoroughly after each addition. If cloudiness resulted, 0. 25-ml of water at a time was added continuously with vigorous shaking until a homogeneous dispersion results. The total volume of water added was noted. If cloudiness resulted after the addition of 2. -ml of water, the alcohol is said to be immiscible in water but if there was no cloudiness then it is miscible to water. The results were noted down. The same procedure was performed on the test tubes containing n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol. 2. Using the Lucas Test This test was performed on n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. Lucas reagent was prepared by dissolving 16 g of anhydrous zinc chloride in 10-ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The mixture was then allowed to cool. The Lucas Reagent was already prepared beforehand. 50-mg or 2-3 drops of the sample was added to 1-ml of the reagent in a test tube and the mixture was shaken vigorously for a few seconds. The mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature. The rate of formation of the cloudy suspension or the formation of two layers was observed. 3. Using the Chromic Acid Test / Jones Oxidation This test was performed on n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and acetone. 1 drop of liquid or a small amount of the solid sample was dissolved in 1-ml of acetone in a small vial or test tube. drops of 10% aqueous Potassium chromate solution and 5 drops of 6M sulphuric acid were added into the mixture. 4. Using the 2,4-DNP Test This test was performed on acetone, n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde. The reagent was prepared by slowly adding a solution of 3 g of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 15-ml of concentrated sulphuric acid, while stirring to a mixture of 20-ml of water and 70-ml of 95% ethanol. The solution was then stirred and filtered. This reagent was already prepared beforehand. A drop of a liquid sample was placed into a small sample. 5 drops of 95% ethanol was added and well shaken. Afterwards, 3 drops of 2,4-DNP was added and if no yellow or orange precipitate formed, the solution was allowed to stand for at least 15 minutes. 5. Using the Fehling’s Test This test was performed on acetone, n-butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Fehling’s reagent was prepared by mixing equal amounts of Fehling’s A and Fehling’s B. Fehling’s A was prepared by dissolving 7 g of hydrated copper (II) sulfate in 100-ml of water. Fehling’s B was prepared by mixing 35 g of Potassium sodium tartrate and 10 g of Sodium hydroxide in 100-ml water. Then, 1-ml of freshly prepared Fehling’s reagent was placed into each test tube. drops of the sample to be tested was added in to the tube. The tubes were then placed in a beaker of boiling water and changes within 10-15 minutes were observed. 6. Using the Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test This test was performed on benzaldehyde, acetone and n-butyraldehyde. The reagent was prepared by adding 2 drops o f 5% Sodium hydroxide solution to 2-ml of 5% Silver nitrate solution and mixing thoroughly. Next, only enough 2% ammonium hydroxide (concentrated ammonium hydroxide is 28%) was added drop by drop and with stirring to dissolve the precipitate. Adding excess ammonia will cause discrepancies on the result of the test. Then, four test tubes with 1-ml of freshly prepared Tollens’ reagent were prepared. Two drops each of the samples were then added. The mixture was shaken and allowed to stand for 10 minutes. If no reaction has occurred, the test tube was placed in a beaker of warm water (35-50 oC) for 5 minutes. Observations were recorded. It was noted that if Tollens’ reagent is left unused for a period of time, it may form explosive silver. This was avoided by neutralizing unused reagent with a little nitric acid and discarded afterwards. . Using the Iodoform Test This test was performed on acetone, n- butyraldehyde and isopropyl alcohol. 2 drops of each sample was placed into its own small vial or test tube. 20 drops of fresh chlorine bleach (5% Sodium hypochlorite) was slowly added while shaking to each test tube and then, mixed. The formation of a yellow participate was noted. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Solubi lity of Alcohols in Water In the experiment, five compounds were tested to determine the presence of the –OH, hydroxyl group through solubility of the sample in water. The presence of an –OH group was indicated by the miscibility of the substance. This follows the general rule in solubility that â€Å"like dissolves like†. Meaning, a polar solute will dissolve in a polar solvent and a non polar solute will be insoluble in a polar solvent. [14] Going back to the experiment, it was observed that alcohol was soluble in water but as the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain of the alcohol increased, the solubility of the alcohol sample decreased. It was also observed that branching of the compound increased its solubility in water. Branching will increase solubility since more branching will reduce the size of the molecule and make it easier to solvate the molecules with the solvent. [14] The results of the experiment show that the solubility of alcohols in water depends on the balance between the strength of the hydrogen bonds formed between water and the hydroxyl group, and the strength of the Van der Waals forces between the hydrocarbon chains of the alcohol. Alcohol| Condensed Structural Formula| Amount of Water (in ml) needed to produce a homogeneous dispersion| Solubility in Water| Ethanol| CH3CH2OH| 0. ml| Most Miscible| n-butyl alcohol| CH3CH2CH2CH2OH| 2. 0 ml| Miscible| Sec-butyl alcohol| | 1. 4 ml| Miscible| Tert-butyl alcohol| | 0. 5 ml| Miscible| Benzyl alcohol| | More than 2. 0 ml| Immiscible| Table 1. Solubility of alcohols in water The table above showed that ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol were all miscible with water. Only benzyl alcohol had exhibited immisci bility with water. As stated, all alcohols were soluble in water except under C6. Hence, ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol are all miscible with water. Ethanol has two carbon atoms, while the other three all have four carbons since they are all derivatives of the alcohol, butanol. Benzyl alcohol was immiscible with water because it is an aromatic alcohol. Ethanol was the most miscible alcohol followed by tert-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, and n-butyl alcohol. Ethanol exhibited fastest solubility because it has only two carbon atoms as compared to the butanol derivatives having four carbon atoms. Tert-butyl alcohol was the most miscible among the butanol derivatives because it has the most branching substituents present. 2. Lucas Test The four types of alcohols namely n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were differentiated from each other by way of the Lucas Test. Lucas Test differentiates primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. Reagents used include anhydrous ZnCl2 and HCl. Positive result was based on its turbidity or alkyl chloride formation and its rate of the reaction. Tertiary alcohols formed the second layer in less than a minute. Secondary alcohols required 5-10 minutes before formation of second layer while primary alcohols were usually unreactive. Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| -butyl alcohol| CH3CH2CH2CH2OH| Clear solution(+)| Sec-butyl alcohol| | Clear solution(+)| Tert-butyl alcohol| | Turbid (+++) /Cloudy solution and formation of two layers| IsopropylAlcohol| | ClearSolution(+)| Table 2. Lucas Test Based on Table 2, it was only tert-butyl alcohol which had immediately formed two layers or a cloudy solution; hence, it was known to be a t ertiary alcohol. Sec-butyl alcohol and Isopropyl alcohol when subjected to Lucas test resulted to a clear solution although theoretically, a secondary alcohol dissolves to give a clear solution then form chlorides which would yield to a cloudy solution within five minutes. -butyl alcohol was considered as a primary alcohol. It was unreactive but eventually would react after long period of time. Generally, the order of reactivity of the alcohols toward Lucas reagent was 3 °;2 °;1 ° because the reaction rate was much faster when the carbocation intermediate was more stabilized by a greater number of electron donating alkyl group bonded to the positive carbon atom. This means that the greater the alkyl groups present in a compound, the faster its reaction would be with the Lucas solution. [1] Figure 16. Reaction in Lucas Test 3. Chromic Acid Test (Jones Oxidation) This test was performed on n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and acetone. The chromic acid test classifies the three types of alcohols by oxidizing the alcohol. The test was also used to be able to distinguish aldehydes from ketones. Since primary and secondary alcohols were also oxidized by the chromic acid reagent, this test was not useful for distinguishing aldehydes unless a positive identification of a carbonyl group has been obtained from the 2,4-DNP test. Chromic acid has an orange-red color due to the presence of Cr+6 ions, upon oxidation of the aldehyde, the chromium was reduced to Cr+3, which had a green color. A positive result was indicated by a green precipitate due to chromous sulfate, Cr? (SO? )?. [1] From the results, it was noted that the formation of an opaque blue-green suspension within 2-3 seconds, accompanied by disappearance of the orange color of the reagent, indicates a primary or secondary alcohol. A primary alcohol oxidizes readily, first to an aldehyde, then to a carboxylic acid. These two oxidation steps made sense because the primary alcohol functional group has two C-H bonds that can be broken; secondary alcohols were oxidized to ketones, a secondary alcohol only has one C-H bond that can be broken, so it can only oxidize once, to a ketone; a tertiary alcohol has no C-H bond that can be broken, so it was not oxidized, no matter how strong the oxidizing agent was. During the oxidation, the orange-red color of the chromic acid changed to a blue-green solution. Figure 17. Oxidation of the three types of Alcohols The results also show that aldehydes gave the same result but reacted more slowly. With aliphatic aldehydes, the solution turned cloudy in about 5 seconds, and the opaque blue-green suspension formed within 30 seconds; aromatic aldehydes required 30-90 seconds or longer before a suspension formed. The generation of some other dark color, particularly with the liquid remaining orange, was considered a negative test. It was concluded that alcohols and aldehydes are oxidized by chromic acid but ketones were not because they don’t have a hydrogen atom attached to their carbonyl group that can be used for oxidation. Figure 18. Oxidation of Aldehyde Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| -butyl alcohol| CH3CH2CH2CH2OH| Blue green solution(+)| Sec-butyl alcohol| | Blue green solution(+)| Tert-butyl alcohol| | Blue green solution (+)| n-butyraldehyde| | Blue greenSolution (+)| Benzaldehyde| | Blue green solution(+)| Acetone| | Green solution(-)| Table 3. Reactions to the Chromic Acid Test It was observed that all the compounds tested gave a visible posit ive result, a blue green solution, except for acetone which had yielded to a green solution. 4. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone Test This test was performed on acetone, n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) test determined the presence of a carbonyl group in the sample compound. The test used an organic reactant, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, to distinguish the carbonyl compounds, aldehydes and ketones, from the non-carbonyl compounds, alcohols. The 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent was a translucent yellow solution. When this reagent was subjected in the presence of a carbonyl compound, a yellow colored precipitate would form while in the presence of an alcohol, the solution would remain translucent yellow with no precipitate formed. The reaction of 2,4-DNP with an aldehyde or ketone was a condensation reaction. Under less acidic conditions, in this type of reaction, a nucleophile donates a pair of electrons toward the carbonyl carbon forming a single bond to it. [2] At the same time the double bond between the carbonyl carbon and oxygen becomes a single bond as one bonding pair of electrons in the double bond moves to become an unshared pair on the oxygen. The oxygen now has one bond to it and it holds three pairs of unshared electrons, so it has a negative charge. Consequently, the oxygen picks up a proton from somewhere and becomes an -OH group. The proton from the acid attaches itself to one of the unshared pairs of electrons on the oxygen. The carbonyl group now has a +1 charge and is very inviting to even a weak nucleophile. So, the nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon forming a bond and the doubly bonded oxygen of the carbonyl becomes an -OH, as before. [1] Figure 19. Nucleophilic addition of 2,4-DNP to Acetone. As seen just below, this product is not usually the one that was isolated. Rather this product undergoes an elimination reaction in which the -OH was removed from the carbon to which it is attached and the hydrogen was removed from the nitrogen immediately to the right, resulting in a double bond between the nitrogen and carbon and a molecule of water. The final product was known as a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone. That is why this reaction was also considered as an elimination reaction. Figure 20. Elimination reaction of DNP Figure 21. Reaction of 2,4-DNP with a Carbonyl group Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| n-butyraldehyde| | Yellow- orange precipitate(+)| Benzaldehyde| | Yellow –orange precipitate(+)| Acetone| | Yellow –orange precipitate(+)| Table 4. Reactions to the 2,4- DNP Test As shown on table 4, it was observed that there was a formation of a yellow – orange precipitate in all the compounds used. This would then indicate a presence of either an aldehyde or a ketone. 5. Fehling’s Test Fehling's test differentiated aldehydes and ketones. It was based upon the ability of the aldehyde group to reduce the Cu+2 ion of Cu(OH)? , a blue color, to the Cu ion of Cu? O, a dark red color, in the presence of a base. Fehling's solution contains copper (II) ions complex with tartrate ions in sodium hydroxide solution. Complexion of the copper (II) ions with tartrate ions prevents precipitation of copper (II) hydroxide. Aldehydes reduce the complex copper (II) ion to copper (I) oxide, changing the color of the solution to brick red or dark green. Because the solution is alkaline, the aldehyde itself is oxidized to a salt of the corresponding carboxylic acid. [2] In short it involved a redox reaction wherein aldehyde was oxidized to carboxylic acid and ketones did not undergo oxidation. Copper was reduced from Cu2+ to Cu+. Figure 22. Oxidation of aldehyde to carboxylic acid through Fehling’s test It was a test for aldehydes. Reagents include CuSO4, NaOH. A positive result is the formation of brick red precipitate (Cu2O/cuprous oxide). This test was performed on acetone, n-butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| n-butyraldehyde| | Brick red precipitate (+)| Benzaldehyde| | Brick red precipitate(+)| Acetone| | Clear blue solution(-)| Table 5. Reactions to the Fehling’s Test As shown in Table 5, n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde exhibited positive result while acetone exhibited an absence of brick red precipitate. It can be concluded that n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde were both aldehyde. 6. Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test Tollens’ silver mirror test was a test for aldehydes. Tollen’s reagent was an ammoniacal solution of silver ion prepared by dissolving silver oxide in ammonia. The preparation of the reagent is based on the formation of a silver diamine complex that is water soluble in basic solution. In this reaction, the aldehyde was oxidized to a carboxylic acid while the Ag+1was reduced to silver metal, which deposited as a thin film on the inner surface of the glass. The generic reaction was as follows and was specific for aldehydes. [16] Figure 23. Oxidation of aldehyde with Tollen’s reagent Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| n-butyraldehyde| | Silver Mirror(+)| Benzaldehyde| | Silver Mirror(+)| Acetone| | Clear grayish-black solution (-)| Table 6. Reactions to Tollen’s Silver Mirror Test This test was performed on benzaldehyde, acetone and n-butyraldehyde. Based on the results seen in table 6, it was concluded that the aldehyde samples produced a silver mirror on the inner surface of the test tube since aldehydes were easily oxidized. The ketones sample, acetone, on the other hand, didn’t form this mirror image because of its inability to oxidize due to the lack of a hydrogen atom attached to its carbonyl group that could be used for oxidation. 7. Iodoform Test Iodoform test was a test for methyl carbinol, secondary alcohol with adjacent methyl group, and methyl carbonyl. Methyl ketones, but not other ketones, were oxidized by iodine in aqueous sodium hydroxide. The ketone was oxidized to a carboxylic acid which yellow iodoform/ precipitate would be formed. It was the yellow precipitate formed would be the basis of a positive result. Acetaldehyde, but not other aldehydes, would yield to a positive result in this test owing to its structural similarity to methyl ketones. It was also true that ethanol would be oxidized to acetaldehyde and secondary alcohols that could be oxidized to methyl ketones given this test. [2] Figure 24. Oxidation of a methyl ketone Substance| Condensed Structural Formula| Reaction| N-butraldehyde| | Yellow solution with black precipitate (-)| Acetone| | Yellow precipitate| Isopropyl alcohol| | Yellow precipitate| Table 7. Reaction to the Iodoform Test This test was performed on acetone, n- butyraldehyde and isopropyl alcohol. Based on table 7, the results indicate that the methyl ketones of isopropyl alcohol and acetone were oxidized by iodine to carboxylic acids because the compounds formed a yellow precipitate while n-bytraldehyde didn’t. It was then concluded that compounds with a methyl group next to the carbonyl group would give a positive result in the iodoform test, ethanol and secondary alcohols with the methyl group attached to the same carbon as the OH- group would also give a positive result. During the experiment, the compounds acetaldehyde and acetophenone were not available. This was the reason why results of these compounds in different tests were not observed but based from different informations which were gathered from different sources. Acetophenone would give a positive result in the following test namely 2,4 DNP test and Iodoform test. While acetaldehyde would give a positive result in the following test namely Chromic Acid test, 2,4 DNP test, Fehling’s test and as well as Tollens’ Silver Mirror test. REFERENCES: From books: [1]Lehman, John W(2009). Operational Organic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving Approach to the Laboratory Course. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice. [2]Martin, Stephen F(2011). Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiments: Miniscale and Microscale. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. [3]McMurry, John(2010). Foundations of Organic Chemistry, Philippine Edition. Cengage Learning. [4]Shriner, Ralph Lloyd (1980). Systematic Identification of Organic Compound: A Laboratory Manual (6th Ed. ). John Wiley ; Sons, Inc. New York: Van Hoffmann Press. From Websites: [5]Acetophenone. www. chemicalland21. om/industrialchem/solalc/ACETOPHENONE. htm 09/09/11 [6]Acetone. www. chemicalland21. com/industrialchem/solalc/ACETONE. htm 09/09/11 [7]n-butyl alcohol. www. chemicalland21. com/industrialchem/solalc/NBUTYLALCOHOL. htm 09/09/11 [8]Sec-butyl alcohol. www. chemicalland21. com/industrialchem/solalc/2-BUTANOL. htm 09/09/11 [9]Tert-butyl alcohol. www. chemicalland21. com/industrialchem/solalc/TERTBUTYL%20ALCOHOL 09/10/11 [10] Isopropyl alcohol. www. chemicalland21. com/petrochemical/ISOPROPANOL. htm 09/10/11 [11]Acetaldehyde. www. ntp. niehs. nih. gov/ntp/roc/eleventh/profiles/s001acet. df09/10/11 [12]n-butyraldehyde. www. chemicalland21. com/industrialchem/organic/N-BUTYRALDEHYDE. htm 09/10/11 [13]Benzaldehyde. www. chemicalland21. com/specialtychem/perchem/BENZALDEHYDE. htm 09/10/11 [14]Solubility of Things. www. solubilityofthings. com/water/alcohols 09/09/11 [15]Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones. www. ipfw. edu/chem/112/kimble/3-Alcohol%20Aldehyde%20Ketones. pdf 09/10/11 From scientific journals: [16]Ennis, J. L. and E. S. Shanley. â€Å"Silver Nitrides. † Journal of Chemical Education (1991): 68, A6. â€Å"Silver Nitrides. † Journal of Chemical Education (1991): 68, A6.