Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Facilities And Lack Of Security For Homeless - 1457 Words

facilities and lack of security for homeless are prevalent in rural areas of Bangladesh. (Bangladesh National Policy Framework for Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality, 2000). Empowerment will expand women’s human and social capabilities, their assets and authority over the assets. According to World Bank (2002) empowerment is the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in. negotiate with, influence, control and hold accountable institutions that affect lives. The capabilities enable women to use assets such as land, house, live-stock, savings and jewelry to increase their well-being. The human capabilities include good health, education, production or other life-enhancing skills. Social capabilities include social belonging, leadership, relations of trust, a sense of identity, values that give meaning to life and the capacity to organize (World Bank, 2002). Indicators of women empowerment Women empowerment was measured quantitatively and qualitatively by many researchers for different purposes in a variety of ways. The indicators and empowerment measures used from late 1990s were always context specific and ‘continent’ specific. The leadership qualities, freedom of mobility, participation in decision making, access to resources and assertiveness are crucial to the empowerment of women. Empowerment is a complex process which occurs over a period of time and only the disempowered can experience empowerment. The freedom of mobility andShow MoreRelatedHomelessness Is A Prevalent And Progressive Issue Within Australia Essay1445 Words   |  6 Pagessusceptible to women and children. The homeless are a hidden minority of people with limited access to government and agency resources. The experiences of homelessness often results in the loss of basic determinants of health such as a substantial home, food or education. The National Health Care facility defines homelessness as more than just ‘sleeping rough’. Contrary to popular belief, homelessness can happen to anymore or more so â€Å"an individual who lacks housing including an individual whose primaryRead MoreHomelessness Among Those with Mental Illness1079 Words   |  5 Pagesbasic needs include essentials such as food, water, clothing and shelter. If these are not met, other needs such as safety, security, belonging, and esteem are unattainable. These hierarchy of needs are not excluded from those who suffer from mental illnesses. Many North American cities are facing an increasing problem with homelessness. Unfortunately nearly one-third of homeless people in the US have severe mental illness (Stuart, 2009, p. 633). These include illnesses such as schizophrenia, majorRead MoreA SOLUTION TO HOMELESSNESS IN CANADA Essay1331 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernment and the general public (Tunstall, 2009) . Predominantly, the homeless are individuals or families with no permanent  residence who also lack the resources or abilities necessary to arrange for their own adequate housing and living (Stearman, 2010). This matter affects a diverse demographic of the Canadian public. In 2003, the Toronto report card on housing and homelessness reported that out of 32,000 people who used homeless shelters, 15% were families, 22% were youths between the ages of fifteenRead MoreMental Health Issues Of The United States1175 Words   |  5 Pagesshadowed problem in the U.S, has affected millions across the nation. In t he United States there are many problems with its mental health service. People with mental disorders are in an inferior area with hospitals being shut down, they usually end up homeless, and sometimes they even end up in prison. Consequently, the U.S pays a large amount of money to go into holding these prisoners who could have been in mental hospitals. In addition to mental hospitals being closed, some people do not receive treatmentRead MoreIssues and Adversities Faced by the Homeless Population in America1060 Words   |  4 PagesHomeless families compose a fraction of the homeless population as they â€Å"represent roughly a third of the homeless population in the United States (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2010), and approximately 1.5 million children—1 in 50 youngsters—are homeless each year in the United States† (p. 389). These homeless families often struggle to find permanent residency as a collective unit. There are several typ es of housing situations available for homeless families such as temporaryRead MoreMental Health Issues Of The United States1177 Words   |  5 Pagesshadowed problem in the U.S, has affected millions across the nation. In the United States, there are many problems with its mental health service. People with mental disorders are in an inferior area with hospitals being shut down, they usually end up homeless, and sometimes they even end up in prison. Consequently, the U.S pays a large amount of money to go into holding these prisoners who could have been in mental hospitals. In addition to mental hospitals being closed, some people do not receive treatmentRead MoreThe City Of Overtown Florida Is Located Northwest Of Downtown1302 Words   |  6 Pagesseen a decline in recent years as it struggles with crime, an increase in the vagrant and homeless population and increase in lower income families in the area. This paper will assess the homeless population in regards to the health ri sk associated with this community. Vunerable Population Overview The community of Overtown has seen in recent years an increase in the homeless population in the area. The homeless population can often be seen wandering the area with their belongings in bags or shoppingRead MoreThe Problem Of Homelessness And Homelessness1562 Words   |  7 PagesHomelessness We have already past Stone Age and marched towards the modern where we can see fascinating technology and different invention where cancer can be a cured with different medication but homeless still exists and is on the verge of increasing day by day. We can’t imagine ourselves being lost or not knowing where to go or what to do. Spending every day and night either depending on someone else or finding a shelter where you can have a nap. Waking up with the noises of the cars and otherRead MoreHomelessness Is A Whole Spectrum1453 Words   |  6 Pagesphysiological needs and safety. People experiencing homelessness hardly ever get full meals during the day, or enough sleep during the night. A lot of them also have no kind of safety, whether it be resources, family, or simply a job. Lack of security needs usually results in the lack of stimulation/motivation needs or status needs. These people experiencing homelessness are therefore stuck at the bottom of the pyramid, regardless of how hard they try to climb it (Revich). While homelessness itself is unjustRead MoreHomelessness As Positively Affected by the McKinney Act1436 Words   |  6 Pages This paper will attempt to explain the plight faced by one of the largest, most vulnerable populations in America today: the homeless, and how the McKinney Act has affected it. This out-group faces many hardships and many different policies have been put into place both helping and harming their overall wellbeing.â€Æ' Policies Implemented For Homeless Many social welfare policies have been put into place throughout the course of history to attempt to deal with the ever present problem of homelessness

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

F. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby - 1458 Words

Elly Hunter Mr. Kelly Honors American Literature 12 April 2016 â€Å"The Jazz Age† The iconic novel, The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, utilizes multiple songs throughout the story. â€Å"Fitzgerald’s wok has become automatically identified with an American decade: The Jazz Age (which he named) or the Roaring Twenties or The Boom.† (Fitzgerald, IX). The Twenties was a time full of exploration of alcohol and music and the move from small farms into large cities. â€Å"Since The Great Gatsby is the defining novel of the Twenties, which have become trivialized and vulgarized by people†¦ it was necessary and useful to provide a corrective assessment of that era and Fitzgerald’s response to it† (XI). I personally believe Fitzgerald did just that. The development of Jay Gatsby’s character is all about rebirth and reinvigorating yourself; even if these developments are canards. Nonetheless, the tale of revival is a parallel belief echoed throughout the 1920s and the novel. The Roaring Twenties were a period â€Å"of possibil ities and aspirations† (X) which is an influential theme in The Great Gatsby. â€Å"In ‘Echoes of the Jazz Age’ he wrote: ‘It was an age of miracles, it was an age of art, it was an age of excess, and it was an age of satire’† (X). During a stage of such metamorphosis, one element survives Jay’s coherent love for Daisy. This American classic of romantic literature collaborates beautifully with a playlist of Jazz songs. Also, Fitzgerald regularly mentions songs in the book. F.Show MoreRelatedF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby974 Words   |  4 PagesPoverty in the Valley of Ashes: The Great Gatsby â€Å"This is a valley of ashes- a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and raising smoke and finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air† (Fitzgerald 26). In the novel, â€Å"The Great Gatsby,† the author F. Scott Fitzgerald, mainly depicted lives of the rich and their luxuries but also showed theRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1289 Words   |  6 Pages and many people realized their own version of the American Dream during this period. The American Dream is one that many people want to achieve. However, F. Scott Fitzgerald demonstrates his true feelings about the American Dream in his classic novel, The Great Gatsby. Many characters in this story, such as Daisy and Tom Buchanan, Jay Gatsby, and Jordan Baker, found riches and happiness in materialistic things and people throughout this novel. This is the stereotypical American Dream that is associatedRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby944 Words   |  4 Pages423169 Prompt #4 No Comments Lim [f (x)] - 0 = ∞ ... The Limit as X Approaches Infinity Humans continually search for success. This success surfaces in forms such as fortune, fame, glory, et cetera. The American Dream encapsulates the ideals of the â€Å"New World,† bringing together not only the idea of limitless success, but also its newfound availability and encouragement for embracing the promise land. The Great Gatsby explores the American Dream and â€Å"the actual nature of this dream... the mannerRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1265 Words   |  6 PagesJay Gatsby and His Undying Love for Daisy Buchanan F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby in the midst of the roaring twenties, which was an age full of wealth, parties, and romance. Young people living in the 1920s were centered around wanting to find love so Fitzgerald, along with many other authors during this time period, focused his writing in The Great Gatsby on relationships and affection. Jay Gatsby, one of the main characters in the novel, is a very mysterious man, but there is oneRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1845 Words   |  8 Pages â€Å"You don’t write to say something, you write because you have something to say.† F. Scott Fitzgerald was one of the most remarkable writers of all time during the Jazz Age. He started to reach an accomplishment of success with This Side of Paradise and accomplished it with The Great Gatsby. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels take place back in the early 1900’s; he attempts to communicate knowledge to the elocutionist, in a sophisticated, but humorous way, that making it big is not uncomplicated. FurthermoreRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1720 Words   |  7 Pagesdriving force of evolution in humanity. It allows the aspiration of being able to do astonishing things, and proffers them prosperity in life. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald delves into the American Dream and it’s demise. Fitzgerald focuses on the character of Jay Gatsby to materialize the false image that the American Dream created in the 1920’s. Gatsby is th e protagonist of the novel, and is famous for throwing massive parties regardless of the secret life that he lives. The narrator, Nick CarrawayRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1202 Words   |  5 PagesJay Gatsby and F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald is an acclaimed American author, popularly recognized for his novel The Great Gatsby. In addition to his literary work, Fitzgerald is noted for his unstable personal life. Originally coming from a low-income background, he could not marry the woman that he first loved. Even when he met another woman, he had to acquire wealth to marry her; this drove him to publish his first novel. He married her shortly after. However, a couple years after, heRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1258 Words   |  6 Pages What Killed Gatsby? Love or Greed? To certain people, Gatsby’s death was a cruel and surprising conclusion to The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. But there is still some mystery around the cause of Gatsby’s death. Upon meeting Gatsby for the first time, one can tell that he has an obsession centered around Daisy Buchanan, his old love, and was dead set on getting her back. Gatsby’s obsession with repeating the past is responsible for his death and Gatsby’s greed put him in a grave. FurtherRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1761 Words   |  8 Pagescould be the main focus of people who are going out on their own to create a family. However, F. Scott Fitzgerald took a different route in his most famous novel. Fitzgerald uses his book, The Great Gatsby, to show how the idea of the American Dream is slowly dying in the society he created. Although the American Dream was prevalent during the time The Great Gatsby took place in, F. Scott Fitzgerald went against the social norm of believing in this idea and revolved his novel around the idea ofRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1381 Words   |  6 PagesResearch Paper on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby portrays characterization corresponding with characters’ birthplaces, desires, and determination in order to devise their statuses. The narrator, Nick Carraway, is disparate from others due to the place he grew up which is exemplified when he moves to New York from the Midwest. Tom Buchanan satisfies his desire for love by having women in his life as well as his wife Daisy. Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan

Monday, December 9, 2019

Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe Essay Example For Students

Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe Essay Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe. At the age of twelve Dickens was taken out of school in London, and put to work in a filthy warehouse where he had to stick labels on bottles of boot-black. He was uprooted at the warehouse and was utterly lonely as his father, mother and five siblings were placed in a debtors prison where John Charles Charles Dickens father worked as a clerk. Dickens suppressed this episode for much of his adult life, acknowledging it only in his fiction. It is revisited too, in Great Expectations, when the stupid, clumsy labouring boy Pip goes to London to escape the indignities of the smithy work, only to find himself increasingly implicated in substrate of crime and deprivation, which seem to make his London experience an extended symbolic brooding on the taint first encountered by Dickens himself in the Blacking Warehouse. The setting of Great Expectations is during Victorian England. This is a very important time when many changes were happening in society. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries greatly transformed society and the work ethics. This novel is also, to a certain extent, an autobiography of Charles Dickens life. Great Expectations was certainly one of Charles Dickens greatest critical and popular successes. The story is told as a first person narrative with the main character, Pip, explaining his life and times. Great Expectations is both an absorbing mystery as well as a morality tale. It centers around the story of Pip Phillip Pirrip. Pip is a man that all through his young life tries to better himself because he is ashamed of who he is, and where he came from. When fortune falls in his lap, Pip is forced to realize that money does not make you happy, and that it cannot buy what he wants most, Estellas love. Pip is a poor village boy, his expectations of wealth, and his development through life after an early meeting with the escaped convict Magwich, who he treats kindly despite his fear. Pips unpleasant sister and her humorous and friendly blacksmith husband, Joe, bring him up. Young Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, a now aging woman who has given up on life after being jilted at the altar, and also meets her adopted daughter Estella. Estella is a beautiful girl but seems an empty shell of a person. Cruelly, Miss Havisham has brought up Estella to revenge her own pain and so as Pip falls in love with her she is made to torture him in romance. Aspiring to be a gentleman despite his humble beginnings, Pip seems to achieve the impossible by receiving a fund of wealth from an unknown source and being sent to London with a lawyer, Jaggers. He is employed but eventually loses everything and his love, Estella, marries another. Pip soon learns that his benefactor is Magwich and his future existence is based upon outgrowing the great expectations and returning to Joe. Eventually Pip is reunited with Estella. In Great Expectations, Dickens is interested in what it means to be a gentleman. He explores this theme through three characters, Pip, Joe and Magwich. All three characters are not of a high social position. The social classes in England at this time were immensely divided between the upper class and the working class, which is what Pip, Joe and Magwich belonged to. Joe and Pip lived in the bustling and dirty city of London rather than the calm and scarcely populated countryside. .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .postImageUrl , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:visited , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:active { border:0!important; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:active , .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u93c8c6b66ae4e4ca6f3e362f290849cb:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Social services EssayThe novel also clearly shows the strict rules and expectations that governed people in the different classes, especially the higher classes. People from the working class were not supposed to mix with people of the higher classes and the rules they had to live by were strict. Pip is the main character and also the narrator of the story. The very first time we see Pip he is a very small boy and he is in a graveyard. He tells us that he is looking at the graves of his mother, father, brothers and sisters. He goes on to indicate that he never even saw them but forms his impressions of them from their gravestones. Pip is then approached by an escaped convict, Magwich, and is very frightened by this encounter. Dickens describes this fear very accurately. Pip risks his own punishment by stealing food and equipment to help the convict, however, Pip also tells Magwich that he hopes he enjoys the food. This shows signs of kindness and generosity which are both gentlemanly traits. Pips life at home is far from ideal. It is Christmas Eve but the only way Pip appears to observe this is by stirring the pudding all evening until his arm aches. His sister continuously threatens him and Joe with her stick and with tar-water. Pip belongs to a home of very low social class shown by the dialect and lack of education in his home. By the end of Chapter 7, Pip is about to be dragged off to play at Miss Havishams. When arriving at Miss Havishams Satis House Pip meets a young girl who turns out to be Estella, Miss Havishams adopted daughter. Pip sees her and instantly falls in love with her looks, however later on when talks to Estella he learns that Estellas personality is not as pretty as her looks, and that infact she is a cold à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" hearted young girl. Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, who asks him what he thinks of Estella. Pip protects Estellas feelings by whispering into Miss Havishams ear as to what he really thinks of Estella, this is another gentlemanly trait, this shows Pips etiquette. Pip shows gentlemanly traits further on in the story when he is much older. Pip helps Magwich escape from London and tells Magwich that he is going to go with him. However, Magwich and Pip get caught and Magwich ends up being locked up in jail and is sentenced to death. Pip show a gentlemanly trait throughout all of this episode and stays with Magwich till his end. Another character which shows signs of being a true gentleman is Joe, who shows various different gentlemanly traits throughout the story. Joe Gargery is married to Pips sister, Mrs Joe, making him Pips brother-in-law. However, due to the age difference between them and the fact that Pip is an orphan, Joe is more like a father to Pip, and calls him his own son, which shows that he is genuinely fond of Pip. Pip describes Joe as a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow. Pip sister treats Joe almost as badly as she treats Pip himself and Pip claims that he treats Joe as a larger species of child and as no more than Pips equal. However, Joes care and concern for Pip shows the importance of their relationship during Pips unhappy childhood. Apart from his strong relationship with Pip, Joe leads an unhappy life as a poor blacksmith who repeatedly gets threatened by his wife, Mrs Joe. Mrs Joe is a tyrannical sister and mother figure, Mrs. Joe raised Pip from the time his parents died when he was a baby until her accident. .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .postImageUrl , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:visited , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:active { border:0!important; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:active , .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1 .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uebc7a60641686f631bb73b33632e45f1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Enric Miralles - Time Architecture EssayAbusive and prone to rampages of her temper, she appeared in the beginning to be an almost uncaring but authoritative figure. Being the good hearted man Joe is, he would never hit back at his wife and always tries to protect Pip from her, this is a gentlemanly trait. Joe also stands up for his abusing wife when Orlick is rude to her. When Joe learns that Pip helped the convict, Magwich, by giving him some food and equipment, Joe say that he would not want to see the convict starve, rather than lose his temper with Pip. When Pip gets an apprenticeship and goes to London, Joe goes to visit him. Joe wears his Sunday best, however uncomfortable, just so he doesnt let Pip down. When Joe meets Pip he calls him Mr Pip, even though Pip is younger than him, he does this to show respect. He also wears his Sunday best when he goes to see Miss Havisham. Further on in the story, Joe helps Pip by paying his debts with the savings he was going to use to marry Biddy. He also cares for Pip when he becomes ill, even though Pip has not been good to him. The third character to show gentlemanly traits is Magwich. A convict and Pips benefactor, at different times in the story Magwich is both villain and hero. After the loss of his daughter, Magwich develops affection for the young boy who brings him food, brandy, and a file. Wanting the boy to be all he couldnt be, he devotes his life to making money and giving it to the boy to be a gentleman. Magwich risks his own life so he can see Pip. Magwich shows gentlemanly traits through various different parts throughout the story. When Pip brings Magwich some food and equipment, Magwich thanks him. Magwich works hard and lives a rough life so that he can save enough money to make Pip a gentleman. Also, Magwich doesnt blame Pip when his escape goes wrong, towards the end of the story.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Luca Pacioli free essay sample

Born: 1445 in Sansepolcro, Italy Died: 1517 in Sansepolcro, Italy Luca Pacioli s male parent was Bartolomeo Pacioli, but Pacioli does non look to hold been brought up in his parents house. He lived as a kid with the Befolci household in Sansepolcro which was the town of his birth. This town is really much in the Centre of Italy about 60 kilometers north of the metropolis of Perugia. Equally far as Pacioli was concerned, possibly the most of import characteristic of this little commercial town was the fact that Piero della Francesca had a studio and workshop in there and della Francesca spent rather some clip there despite frequent committees in other towns Although we know small of Pacioli s early life, the speculation that he may hold received at least a portion of his instruction in the studio of della Francesca in Sansepolcro must at least have a strong opportunity of being right. We will write a custom essay sample on Luca Pacioli or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One ground that this seems likely to be true is the extended cognition that Pacioli had of the work of Piero della Francesca and Pacioli s Hagiographas were really strongly influenced by those of Piero. Pacioli moved off from Sansepolcro while he was still a immature chap. He moved to Venice to come in the service of the affluent merchandiser Antonio Rompiansi whose house was in the extremely desirable Giudecca territory of that metropolis. One has to presume that Pacioli was already good educated in basic mathematics from surveies in Sansepolcro and he surely must hold been good educated by and large to hold been chosen as a coach to Rompiansi s three boies. However, Pacioli took the chance to go on his mathematical surveies at a higher degree while in Venice, analyzing mathematics under Domenico Bragadino. During this clip Pacioli gained see both in instruction, from his function as coach, and besides in concern from his function assisting with Rompiansi s personal businesss. It was during his clip in Venice that Pacioli wrote his first work, a book on arithmetic which he dedicated to his employer. This was completed in 1470 likely in the twelvemonth that Rompiansi died. Pacioli surely seemed to cognize all the right people for he left Venice and travelled to Rome where he spent several months populating in the house of Leone Battista Alberti who was secretary in the Papal Chancery. Equally good as being an first-class bookman and mathematician, Alberti was able to supply Pacioli with good spiritual connexions. At this clip Pacioli so studied divinity and, at some clip during the following few old ages, he became a mendicant in the Franciscan Order. In 1477 Pacioli began a life of traveling, disbursement clip at assorted universities learning mathematics, peculiarly arithmetic. He taught at the University of Perugia from 1477 to 1480 and while there he wrote a 2nd work on arithmetic designed for the categories that he was learning. He taught at Zara ( now called Zadar or Jadera in Croatia but at that clip in the Venetian Empire ) and there wrote a 3rd book on arithmetic. None of the three arithmetic texts were published, and merely the one written for the pupils in Perugia has survived. After Zara, Pacioli taught once more at the University of Perugia, so at the University of Naples, so at the University of Rome. Certainly Pacioli go acquainted with the duke of Urbino at some clip during this period. Pope Sixtus IV had made Federico district attorney Montefeltro the duke of Urbino in 1474 and Pacioli seems to hold spent some clip as a coach to Federico s boy Guidobaldo who was to go the last opinion Montefeltro when his male par ent died in 1482. The tribunal at Urbino was a noteworthy Centre of civilization and Pacioli must hold had close contact with it over a figure of old ages. In 1489, after two old ages in Rome, Pacioli returned to his place town of Sansepolcro. Not all went swimmingly for Pacioli in his place town, nevertheless. He had been granted some privileges by the Pope and there was a grade of green-eyed monster among the work forces from the spiritual orders in Sansepolcro. In fact Pacioli was banned from learning at that place in 1491 but the green-eyed monster seemed to be assorted with a regard for his acquisition and scholarship for in 1493 he was invited to prophesy the Lent discourses. During this clip in Sansepolcro, Pacioli worked on one of his most celebrated books the Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita which he dedicated to Guidobaldo, the duke of Urbino. Pacioli travelled to Venice in 1494 to print the Summa. The work gives a sum-up of the mathematics known at that clip although it shows little in the manner of original thoughts. The work surveies arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry and, despite the deficiency of originality, was to supply a footing for the major advancement in mathematics which took topographic point in Europe shortly after this clip. As stated in the Summa was: non addressed to a peculiar subdivision of the community. An encyclopedic work ( 600 pages of close print, in pagination ) written in Italian, it contains a general treatise on theoretical and practical arithmetic ; the elements of algebra ; a tabular array of moneys, weights and steps used in the assorted Italian provinces ; a treatise on double-entry clerking ; and a sum-up of Euclid s geometry. He admitted to holding borrowed freely from Euclid, Boethius, Sacrobosco, Fibonacci, The geometrical portion of Pacioli s Summa is discussed in item in [ 6 ] . The writers write: The geometrical portion of L Pacioli s Summa [ Venice, 1494 ] in Italian is one of the earliest printed mathematical books. Pacioli loosely used Euclid s Elementss, reciting some parts of it. He referred besides to Leonardo of Pisa ( Fibonacci ) . Other interesting facets of the Summa was the fact that it studied games of opportunity. Pacioli studied the job of points, see, although the solution he gave is wrong. Ludovico Sforza was the 2nd boy of Francesco Sforza, who had made himself duke of Milan. When Francesco died in 1466, Ludovico s senior brother Galeazzo Sforza became duke of Mil an. However, Galeazzo was murdered in 1476 and his seven twelvemonth old boy became duke of Milan. Ludovico, after some political machination, became trustee to the immature adult male in 1480. With really generous backing of creative persons and bookmans, Ludovico Sforza set about doing his tribunal in Milan the finest in the whole of Europe. In 1482 Leonardo district attorney Vinci entered Ludovico s service as a tribunal painter and applied scientist. In 1494 Ludovico became the duke of Milan and, around 1496, Pacioli was invited by Ludovico to travel to Milan to learn mathematics at Ludovico Sforza s tribunal. This invitation may hold been made at the suggestion of Leonardo da Vinci who had an enthusiastic involvement in mathematics. At Milan Pacioli and Leonardo rapidly became close friends. Mathematicss and art were subjects which they discussed at length, both deriving greatly from the other. At this clip Pacioli began work on the second of his two celebrated plants, Divina proportione and the figures for the text were drawn by Leonardo. Few mathematicians can hold had a more gifted illustrator for their book! The book which Pacioli worked on during 1497 would finally organize the first of three books which he published in 1509 under the rubric Divina proportione ( see for illustration ) . This was the first of the three books which eventually made up this treatise, and it studied the Divine Proportion or aureate ratio which is the ratio a: B = B: ( a + B ) . It contains the theorems of Euclid which relate to this ratio, and it besides surveies regular and semiregular polygons ( see in peculiar for a treatment of Pacioli s work on regular polygons ) . Clearly the involvement of Leonardo in this aestheticall y fulfilling ratio both from a mathematical and artistic point of position was an of import influence on the work. The aureate ratio was besides of importance in architectural design and this subject was to organize the 2nd portion of the treatise which Pacioli wrote subsequently. The 3rd book in the treatise was a interlingual rendition into Italian of one of della Francesca s plants. Louis XII became king of France in 1498 and, being a descendent of the first duke of Milan, he claimed the dukedom. Venice supported Louis against Milan and in 1499 the Gallic ground forcess entered Milan In the undermentioned twelvemonth Ludovico Sforza was captured when he attempted to recapture the metropolis. Pacioli and Leonardo fled together in December 1499, three months after the Gallic captured Milan. They stopped foremost at Mantua, where they were the invitees of Marchioness Isabella dEste, and so in March 1500 they continued to Venice. From Venice they returned to Florence, where Pacioli and Leonardo shared a house. The University of Pisa had suffered a rebellion in 1494 and had moved to Florence. Pacioli was appointed to learn geometry at the University of Pisa in Florence in 1500. He remained in Florence, learning geometry at the university, until 1506. Leonardo, although disbursement 10 months away working for Cesare Borgia, besides remained in Florence until 1506. Pacioli, like Leonardo, had a enchantment off from Firenze when he taught at the University of Bologna during 1501-02. During this clip Pacioli worked with Scipione del Ferro and there has been much speculation as to whether the two discussed the algebraic solution of three-dimensional equations. Surely Pacioli discussed this subject in the Summa and some clip after Pacioli s visit to Bologna, del Ferro solved one of the two instances of this authoritative job. During his clip in Florence Pacioli was involved with Church personal businesss every bit good as with mathematics. He was elected the higher-up of his Order in Romagna and so, in 1506, he entered the monastery of Santa Croce in Florence. After go forthing Florence, Pacioli went to Venice where he was given the exclusive rights to print his plants at that place for the undermentioned 15 old ages. In 1509 he published the three volume work Divina proportione and besides a Latin interlingual rendition of Euclid s Elementss. The first printed edition of Euclid s Elementss was the 13th century interlingual rendition by Campanus which had been published in printed signifier in Venice in 1482. Pacioli s edition was based on that of Campanus but it contained much in the manner of note by Pacioli himself. In 1510 Pacioli returned to Perugia to talk at that place once more. He besides lectured once more in Rome in 1514 but by this clip Pacioli was 70 old ages of age and approaching the terminal of his active life of scholarship and instruction. He returned to Sansepolcro where he died in 1517 go forthing unpublished a major work De viribus stenographer on recreational jobs, geometrical jobs and proverbs. This work makes frequent mention to Leonardo da Vinci who worked with him on the undertaking, and many of the jobs in this treatise are besides in Leonardo s notebooks. Again it is a work for which Pacioli claimed no originality, depicting it as a collection. Despite the deficiency of originality in Pacioli s work, his parts to mathematics are of import, peculiarly because of the influence which his book were to hold over a long period. In the importance of Pacioli s work is discussed, in peculiar his calculation of approximative values of a square root ( utilizing a particular instance of Newton s method ) , his wrong analysis of certain games of opportunity ( similar to those studied by Pascal which gave rise to the theory of chance ) , his jobs affecting figure theory ( similar jobs appeared in Bachet s digest ) , and his aggregation of many charming squares. In 1550 there appeared a life of Piero della Francesca written by Giorgio Vasari. This life accused Pacioli of plagiarism and claimed that he stole della Francesca s work on position, on arithmetic and on geometry. This is an unjust accusal, for although there is truth that Pacioli relied to a great extent on the work of others, and surely on that of della Francesca in peculiar, he neer attempted to claim the work as his ain but acknowledged the beginnings which he used. J J OConnor and E F Robertson