Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Stranger By Albert Camus Essay - 1844 Words

Over the course of the novel, The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, multiple debatable topics have risen. Does Meursault have a heart? Is he an existentialist? Why does he seem to not be phased by his mother dying? This novel is definitely on the more controversial side, which is somewhat strange because although it seems like a novel about almost nothing, everything seems to have a much deeper meaning than it puts off. However, one topic that seems to be overlooked is the fact that The Stranger relates highly to today’s youth. Meursault throughout the novel is constantly influenced by the people he associates himself with such as Raymond, Marie, Masson and more. His actions and habits can hit home with many troubled millennials. Although most of what people like to call â€Å"peer pressure† involves drug use, which this novel lacks, other issues and simply the idea of being influenced by someone to do something reckless are seen that can relate to today’s youth . Meursault shows countless times that he is very vulnerable to being influenced by the people around him, for the most part, his friend Raymond, and along with some of his actions, this seem to ultimately lead to his demise, which can very much relate to today’s younger generation that deal with peer pressure everyday. By definition, peer pressure is defined as, â€Å"social pressure by members of one s peer group to take a certain action, adopt certain values, or otherwise conform in order to be accepted†Show MoreRelatedThe Stranger By Albert Camus1391 Words   |  6 PagesThe Stranger â€Å"The Stranger,† written by the Algerian writer Albert Camus, is a novel about Meursault, a character who’s different and even threatening views on life take him to pay the highest price a person can pay: his life. This was Camus’ first novel written in the early 1940’s, in France, and it reflects the authors belief that there is no meaning in life and it is absurd for humans to try to find it places like religion. The main themes of the novel are irrationality of the universe and theRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1495 Words   |  6 Pages Albert Camus said, â€Å"Basically, at the very bottom of life, which seduces us all, there is only absurdity, and more absurdity. And maybe that s what gives us our joy for living, because the only thing that can defeat absurdity is lucidity.† In other terms, Camus is indicating that absurdity affects us all even if it’s hidden all the way on the bottom, but it’s the joy that comes from absurdity that makes us take risks and live freely without any thought or focus. Camus also specifies that the onlyRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1411 Words   |  6 PagesThe novel The Stranger, written by Albert Camus, encompasses contemporary philosophies of existentialism and absurdism. Existentialist and absurdist philosophies entail principles regarding that one’s identity is not based on nature or culture, but rather by sole existence. The role of minor characters in The Stranger helps to present Camus’s purpose to convey absurdist and existentialist principles. The characters of Salamano and Marie are utilized in order to contrast the author’s ideas about contemporaryRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus720 Words   |  3 PagesAlbert Camus’ portrayal of the emotional being of the main character in The Stranger is an indirect display of his own personal distress. The use of symbolism and irony presented throughout this novel is comparable with the quest for such that death itself would be nonetheless happy. Camus’ irrational concept is based off the exclusion of any logical reasoning behind the events in the text. Meursault’s first impression given to the reader is that of ignorance and a nonchalant behavior to indifferenceRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1345 Words   |  6 PagesAbsurdism is a philosophy based on the belief that the universe is irrational and meaningless and that the search for order brings the individual into conflict with the universe. Albert Camus’s novel The Stranger is often termed an absurdist novel because it contains the elements of Camus’s philosophical notion of absurdity. Mersault, the protagonist, is an absurd hero that is emotionally detached and indifferent form society. Neither the external world in which Meursault lives nor the internal worldRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesThe Stranger was written by the French author Albert Camus, and was first published in 1942 in its indigenous French. It’s described as being the most widely-read French novel of the twentieth century, and has sold milli ons of copies in Britain and the United States alone. It’s known by two titles; the other being The Outsider. The backstory to this is very interesting but, more importantly, the subtle difference in meaning between titles suggests certain resultant translative idiosyncrasies whenRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1628 Words   |  7 PagesAlbert Camus’s novel â€Å"The Stranger† revolves around a young man estranged from society. This man, Monsieur Meursault, lives the majority of his life fulfilling his own physical needs and social obligations, but has little emotional connection to the world around him. Throughout the book Meursault attends his mother’s funeral, begins a serious relationship with his former co-worker Marie, kills a man without motive, goes through trial, and is sentenced for execution. His lack of emotional responseRead MoreThe Stranger by Albert Camus1115 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger, by Albert Camus, the point lessness of life and existence is exposed through the illustration of Camus’s absurdist world view. The novel tells the story of an emotionally detached, amoral young man named Meursault. Meursault shows us how important it is to start thinking and analyzing the events that happen in our lives. He does this by developing the theme of conflicts within society. Albert Camus’s novel The Stranger portrays Meursault, the main character, as a staticRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1365 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout The Stranger, Albert Camus uses routinesituations to demonstrate how the protagonist, Meursault is not just another ordinary individual. Camus depicts Meursault as an independent being, disinterested in his surroundings, contrasting him with the majority of his peers. Meursault traverses the entire novel, exhibiting little to no emotion. Instead, he displayscharacteristics synonymous to someone suffering from psychopathy. Regardless of the situation, Meursa ult refrainsfrom assigning meaningRead MoreThe Stranger By Albert Camus1488 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel, The Stranger by Albert Camus there are three major themes established by the main character, Meursault. His detachment from his emotions and him essentially being a sociopath set’s a major tone for the novel. In The Stranger, the major themes introduced are Isolation, The Meaninglessness of Human Existence, and Lack of Human Emotions. These are the three most major because it’s all surrounding the main character, Meursault and these themes provide similarities between Lord of the Flies

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Art Exhibition Art Museum - 2374 Words

Jennifer Vo Professor Worley ARTS 1303 29 December 2014 Art Museum Essay Assignment Among the many artworks I have seen, I decided to discuss about the â€Å"Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazons (Warrior Women)† from the Roman civilization. It was built sometime in between 140 A.D. to 170 A.D and is approximately forty and a half inches in length, ninety-one and a half inches in width, and fifty and a half inches tall in height (â€Å"Roman Sarcophagus†). This masterpiece appealed to me because of the unique approach that has been designed to honor the deceased. Many people are familiar with the formatting and inscriptions of a gravestone because it is usually engraved with an individual’s full name, birth date, and death date. During the Roman Empire, a sarcophagus, which is a coffin, was widely used to show decorative themes that includes: battle scenes, hunting scenes, weddings, or other memorable episodes from the life of the deceased individual. The most luxurious ones were made from marble surrounded by symbolic scul ptures, figures and inscriptions on all four sides (â€Å"Sarcophagus†). Another feature that captured my attention was the large quantity of details used to bring out a lifelike aspect of the deceased individual’s favorable moments in their life. In this artwork, this sarcophagus was dedicated to a Roman commander. The exterior of the sarcophagus has been well-decorated and carved with exquisite details depicting a battle sceneShow MoreRelatedThe Museum Of Art Exhibitions1753 Words   |  8 PagesLast week I decided to visit one of the most well-known art exhibitions in Dallas. As I entered the Dallas Museum of Art I was immediately captivated by the striking and vivid acrylic mural on the walls created by Nicolas Party entitled Pathway. Party said to have worked on-site at the exhibit for three weeks to transform the Museum s central pathway into a mesmerizing, lively colored forest; it was such a contrast to the rest of the exhibit’s entrance. Straight ahead was the Nancy and Tim HanleyRead MoreMuseum Of Modern Art ( Moma ) : Soundings Exhibition2121 Words   |  9 Pages3. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA): Soundings Exhibition Soundings is an interactive website from the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) where users contribute to the exhibition by uploading their own content. It features an interactive map (fig. 10) for users to upload their own soundbites to specific locations around the world. This interactivity adds a collaborative element to the Soundings exhibition, allowing the user to make the exhibition more personal and to participate in the process of meaning-makingRead MoreThe Korean Art Exhibition At The Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1099 Words   |  5 PagesConfucianism and Buddhism have been most influential in ancient Korea prior to the onset of Japanese colonialism. The Korean Art Exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art showed multiple ritual objects such as incense burners and ritual bottles (kundika) used in Buddhist practices during the KoryÃ…  period, suggesting that the religion was prevalent during that time. The museum also displayed a wooden tablet (wonpae) used in the C hosÃ… n period for Buddhist rituals; however, the exhibit did not forgetRead MoreThe Tampa Museum Of Art1308 Words   |  6 PagesFor this project, I chose the Tampa Museum of Art. My daughter Annabelle, who is eleven, accompanied me. She is an aspiring young artist who loves to paint and assemble collages. This paper will describe our trip, the museum’s activities, and what was on exhibit. After which, I will choose two works of art and preform an analysis on them. I will employ the formal elements and the principles of design to engage the first piece, â€Å"The Great Journey†. With my second choice â€Å"A Group of Cubans whoRead MoreThe Della Robbia Exhibition At The Boston Museum Of Fine Arts1158 Words   |  5 PagesI was lucky enough to be able to visit the Della Robbia exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts twice this semester. This was one of the first major exhibitions for Della Robbia in the United States. The Della Robbia series began with Luca della Robbia in the 15th century, and this exhibition showcased 46 works of his family and associated workshops. The exhibition itself was breathtaking and unique. The creamy, white gazed terracotta statues and displays were breathtaking and unique in theirRead MoreEssay about Two Exhibitions on View at The Museum of Contemporary Art1114 Words   |  5 Pages The Museum of Contemporary Art currently has two exhibitions on view; one is called â€Å"Dirge: Reflections on [Life and] Death,† and the other is â€Å"Sara VanDerBeek.† One work of art that stood out the most to me was Epitaph from 2011 by Pedro Reyes. Reyes works are often meant to physically engage his viewers in order to shift their social and emotional expectations. The Epitaph invites his viewers to imagine a future in which they no longer exist, and then create a short message that conveys the lifeRead More Comparing the Websites of Frist and the National Gallery of Art1001 Words   |  5 PagesArt galleries and museums are buildings or spaces used exclusively for the exhibition and education of art, but that’s not all. Galleries and museums are an essential part of our society. Art in itself transcends cultural diversity and differences; the museums and galleries that display art present to us insight into the various cultures, backgrounds, and communities in an unprejudiced environment. They also provide a significant impact on local and state economics. According to the 2007 AmericansRead MoreThe Los Angeles County Museum Of Art1301 Words   |  6 Pagesa trip to the Los Angeles County Museum. However, I was trapped with the challenging choice of choosing only one museum for my cultural visit. Since, there are so many prodigious and amazing museums to choose from to visit in the county. But, I have heard many great feedbacks about the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from fellow classes mates, friends and family. So, I finally, had my destination set to and planne d a visit to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Upon my visit my attention was alreadyRead MoreThe Museum Of Contemporary Art Cleveland1316 Words   |  6 PagesEuclid Avenue to the east, visitors will enjoy the various buildings in Cleveland. From the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to the Tower City, to the University Circle, where there are many of amazing museums. No matter the famous Cleveland museum of art or Natural History Museum. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, is undoubtedly a unique one. During the day, pedestrians and passersby see themselves reflected in the surface. As dusk sets in the building s interior reveals itself and guests get clearRead MoreAppreciation Of A Novel By Barbara Kruger1311 Words   |  6 PagesAppreciation of art is like the appreciation of a novel. One may read a title of a novel and be amazed and curios but will never appreciate it fully if the novel is not read from cover to cover. For any piece of art, one needs to learn about the art ist, the story behind the piece and the purpose of the piece. In addition to learning about the work, as a woman, I find myself leaning more towards the appreciation of the work of women artists who use their talent and skills to express themselves and/or

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Americans with Disability Act of 1990 Free Essays

The American population of disabled workers previously had no protection of their employment or mandates pressed upon their employer to provide necessary work accommodations, to protect their livelihood, until the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The Americans with Disabilities Act is a civil rights law that prohibits employers to discriminate based on an employee’s disability. This paper will demonstrate the components of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as well as provide relevant United States Supreme Court cases set out between employee and employer where the law was challenged or upheld. We will write a custom essay sample on Americans with Disability Act of 1990 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is an Act set out to â€Å"establish a clear and comprehensive prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disability† (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The Act was introduced to the Senate by Senator Tom Harkins on May 9, 1989. The Act was passed by the Senate on September 7, 1989 by a vote of 76-8 and passed by a unanimous voice vote before the House of Representatives on May 22, 1990. The Act was enacted by the 101st United States Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on July 26, 1990 (Americans with disabilities, 1990). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability Under the American with Disabilities Act the term â€Å"disability† refers to a â€Å"physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity† (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case between Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams was presented to the United States Supreme Court on November 7, 2001. The case primarily questioned how you determine whether an individual is substantially limited in the major life activity of performing manual tasks. Under the American’s with Disabilities Act of 1990, 104 Stat. 328, 42 U. S. C. 12101 et seq. (1994 ed. And Supp. V), a physical impairment that â€Å"substantially limits one or more†¦major life activities† is a â€Å"disability. † 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2) (A) (1994 ed. ). Respondent, Ella Williams, claimed to be disabled due to carpal tunnel syndrome and sued, petitioner, her former employer, Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. , for failing to provide accommodations as required under the American with Disabilities Act. Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ] Ella Williams began employment at Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Georgetown, Kentucky, in August of 1990. She was placed on the engine fabrication assembly line, where her duties included work with pneumatic tools. Utilizing these tools over time caused pain in respondent’s hands, wrists and arms. She was treated by her physician and found to have carpal tunnel syndrome and bilateral tendonitis. Her physician released her to return to work with restrictions that included no lifting more than 20 pounds, she could not lift or carry objects weighing more than 10 pounds, must not engage in constant repetitive motion of the wrists and elbows and no overhead work or performing tasks utilizing vibratory or pneumatic tools. Toyota Motor Manufacturing responded to Williams’ restrictions, for the next two years, by modifying her job responsibilities within the medical restriction guidelines. Despite this revision, Williams missed work for medical leave and she filed a claim under the Kentucky Worker’s Compensation Act. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann 342. 0011 et seq (1997 and Supp. 2000). The parties settled this claim and Williams returned to work. Williams was still not satisfied with petitioner’s efforts to accommodate her work restrictions and she filed suit against Toyota in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky alleging that petitioner ha d violated the ADA by refusing to accommodate her disability. The suit was settled, and as part of the settlement, respondent was able to return to work in December of 1993. Upon Williams return, Toyota accommodated respondent by placing her in the Quality Control Inspection Operations Department. The team’s tasks included (1) â€Å"assembly paint†, (2) â€Å"Paint second inspection†; (3) â€Å"shell body audit†; and (4) â€Å"ED surface repair†. Williams was placed on a team that performed only two of these tasks and rotated between the two roles. In assembly paint, Williams would visually inspect painted cars moving slowly down the conveyor and then rotated every other week to the second piece of her role, which was to examine the cars by lifting the hoods and opening the doors. She was able to perform these duties as described. There was a change in workflows in the Department of Quality Control where all employees must rotate between the four tasks of the quality operations. Williams attempted to perform all four duties as required, but began having increased pain, sought medical treatment was diagnosed with myotendonitis bilateral periscapular, inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the shoulder blades and forearms and thoracic outlet syndrome. Williams requested to return to only performing the two components of her position. The parties disagree on what happens next, Williams’ states that Toyota refused her request. Toyota states that the employee began missing work excessively and they were forced to terminate her position for poor attendance. Williams again sued under the Americans with Disability Act of 1990. During the court proceedings and on deposition Williams stated that she was â€Å"disabled† as she was no longer able to perform activities of daily living that included (1) manual tasks; (2) housework; (3) gardening; (4) playing with her children; (5) lifting; and (6) working, all of which, she argued, constituted major life activities under the Act. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). Under the ADA the claimant must show that the limitation on the major life activity is substantial 42 U. S. C. 12102 (2)(A). â€Å"Substantially limits† was defined as unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform†. In determining whether an individual is substantially limited i n a major life activity, the regulations instruct that the following factors should be considered: â€Å"the nature and severity of the impairment; the duration or expected duration of the impairment; and the permanent or long term impact, or the expected permanent or long-term impact of or resulting from impairment. 1630. 2(j)(2)(i)-(iii) (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The court concluded on January 8, 2002 that the respondent’s impairments substantially limited her in the â€Å"major life activities† of performing manual tasks and was found to be â€Å"disabled† as defined under the Americans with Disabilities Act, and therefore granted judgment to respondent on the basis that Toyota violated the Act by not accommodating her request as a disabled individual. [Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams, (00-1089) 534 U. S. 184 (2002). ADA Issue: Definition of Disability and Direct Threat The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, under Title II, prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities. Public entities must comply with the ADA regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice and includes granting access to all programs and services without disability discrimination. Under the ADA regulations there is also a â€Å"direct threat† provision which protects facilities where an individual may pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court Case No. 97-156, Randon Bragdon, Petitioner v. Sidney Abbott, Respondent, poses the question whether asymptomatic HIV infection is a disability under the ADA, and when determining whether an individual with HIV poses a direct threat to a health care provider, should the courts defer to the providers professional judgment [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ] Abbott is infected with HIV, but it had not manifested into the serious stages at the time of the incident. Abbott presented to her dental office and disclosed her HIV infection. Rangdon Bragdon, her dentist, refused to treat her in his office setting and sited his policy on filling cavities on HIV patients. He was willing to treat her in the hospital for no extra charge, but she would be responsible for the hospital bill. She declined and filed suit under the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against any individual†¦ â€Å"on the basis of disability in the †¦enjoyment of the†¦services†¦of any place of public accommodation by any person who†¦operates [such] a place,† 42 U. S. C. 2182 (a), but qualifies the prohibition by providing: â€Å"Nothing [herein] shall require an entity to permit an individual to participate in or benefit from the†¦ accommodations of such entity where such individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others,† 12182(b)(3) (Americans with Disabilities, 1990). The court ruled in favor of the respondent, Sidney Abbott, on June 25, 1998. E ven though the respondent’s HIV had not progressed to the point of being symptomatic, HIV is a â€Å"disability† under 12102 (2)(A), that is, â€Å"a physical†¦impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities. The life activity upon which respondent relies, her ability to reproduce and to bear children, constitutes a â€Å"major life activity† under the ADA. In affirming the summary judgment, the court did not cite sufficient material in the record to determine, as a matter of law, that respondent’s HIV infection posed no direct threat to the health and safety of others. The ADA’s direct threat provision, 12182 (b)(3), stems from School Bd. Of Nassau Cty v. Arline, 480 U. S. 273, 287. [Bragdon v. Abbott (97-156) 107 F. 3d 934, (1998). ADA Issue: Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an employer to provide reasonable accommodation to qualified individuals with disabilities who are employees or applicants for employment, unless to do so would cause undue hardship. An accommodation is typically any change in the work environment that allows an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities (American with disabilities, 1990). The U. S. Supreme Court case U. S. Airways, Inc. v. Robert Barnett poses the question under â€Å"Reasonable Accommodation†, when an employee with a disability seeks reassignment as an accommodation under the ADA, does the employees right to reasonable accommodation trump another employee’s seniority rights when the employer has a seniority system. Robert Barnett, respondent, obtained a back injury when he was a cargo handler for petitioner, US Airways, Inc. Following the injury, he transferred to the mailroom, which was less physically demanding. The mailroom position later became open to a senior-based employee bidding under US Airways seniority system. US Airways gave the position to the most senior employee, refused Robert Barnett’s request to accommodate his disability, and Barnett lost his job. Robert Barnett sued US Airways, Inc. under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits an employer from discriminating against an employee with a â€Å"disability† who with â€Å"reasonable accommodations can perform the essential job functions, 42 U. S. C. 2112(a) and (b), unless the employer â€Å"can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of [its] business†, 1211(b)(5)(A) (Americans with disability, 1990). US Airways presented that their seniority system had been in place for decades and governs over 14,000 US Airways agents and the policy would trump all other requests. They had been consistent with the usage of the seniority system and allowing any other rationale to alter the policy would cause undue hardship to both the company and the non-disabled employees. The court ruled on April 29, 2002 in favor of US Airways and stated that undermining seniority systems would cause a undue hardship on employers [US Airways v. Barnett, 535 US 394 (2002)]. ADA Issue: Scope of Title III Under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires an entity operating â€Å"public accommodations† to make â€Å"reasonable modifications† in its policies to accommodate when necessary disabled individuals, unless the entity can demonstrate that making such modifications would alter the nature of their operations, 12182(b)(2)(A)(ii), (Americans with disabilities, 1990). The case, PGA Tour, Inc v. Casey Martin tests the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 and questions whether Title III of the ADA protects access to professional golf tournaments by qualified entrant with a disability; and whether a contestant with a disability may be denied the use of a golf cart because it would fundamentally alter the nature of the tournament to allow him to ride when all other contestants must walk. Casey Martin, respondent, suffers from a degenerative circulatory disorder that prevents him from walking long distances on the golf course. When Martin became a professional golfer he posed a request, which was supported by medical documentation, that while in tournaments he be accommodated by utilizing a golf cart. Petitioner, PGA Tour, Inc. refused and respondent filed suit under Title III of the ADA. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Martin in a 7-2 decision on May 29, 2001. The Supreme Court found that the PGA Tour should be viewed as a commercial enterprise operating in the entertainment industry and not as a private club. In addition, Martin should be provided a golf cart to utilize as a means of reasonable accommodations [PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin, 984 F. Supp. 1320 (2001). ] The Americans with Disability Act of 1990 has brought valuable protection and necessary accommodations to employees and applicants that otherwise may have been faced with discrimination, which was the principal goal of the legislation. The act has been instrumental in providing access to public programs and services that may have not been available to disabled Americans previous to the inception of the ADA. The ADA makes it possible for everyone to be treated as equals and prevents unethical discriminatory behaviors from being placed upon those individuals that suffer from disabilities. How to cite Americans with Disability Act of 1990, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Control Mechanisms at Boeing free essay sample

Control Mechanisms at Boeing Controlling is an extremely important function of management. Manager’s use control to ensure that goals are met and to make the necessary changes if they are not. Several control mechanisms exist. Managers within companies use the mechanisms to achieve results. This paper will identify, compare, and contrast four of these control mechanisms as they relate to Boeing. It will determine the effectiveness of these control mechanisms, the positive and negative reactions within the company, and how these controls affect the four functions of management at Boeing. Four Control Mechanisms Control mechanisms, whatever their type, exist for the same reasons and same goals in mind: to increase employee production and performance, and to increase the sales, production, and profitability of a company. However, each control works in a different way to achieve these outcomes. Boeing uses many control mechanisms to regulate performance and increase production and profitability. We will write a custom essay sample on Control Mechanisms at Boeing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Bureaucratic Bureaucratic controls use rules and regulations paired with close supervision to regulate performance. These control systems are designed to measure performance by setting standards, measuring progress and performance, comparing the performance to standards, and correcting mistakes while reinforcing successes (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing utilizes the bureaucratic control mechanism by monitoring the performance standards of the operations. Boeing and its competitor Airbus have been finding ways to expedite production and reduce cost. Boeing is working on speeding up production, and raising fuel efficiency of the 787 Dreamliner (Bateman Snell, 2008). Their airplanes are put through many tests to measure the production and efficiency against the standards. Concurrent Control According to Bateman and Snell (2008), concurrent control is a form of bureaucratic control that â€Å"takes place while plans are carried out† (Concurrent control, para. 1). The vision of Boeing was to increase customer knowledge, understand, anticipate, and responding to customers’ needs could be met in a timely manner. To meet these demands Boeing invests on the expansion of technical systems that assist in the integration of production. Boeing also cut cost by eliminating overhead on parts, and outsourcing. Production times have decreased while quality standards have increased (Boeing, 2011). Boeing uses concurrent controls to achieve these standards. Market Control Market controls differ from the bureaucratic controls in that market controls use economic forces and pricing mechanisms in controlling performance rather than performance standards (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing met with auto manufacturers to see how they could streamline the factories to make them more cost-efficient and more competitive in the airline market. The company overhauled factories and added individual parts bins that are more accessible and easier to manage. Boeing also reviewed auto maker assembly lines and matched those to increase production of planes by using moving lines (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing uses market controls to measure competitor performance and implement their own cost saving strategies. Clan Control Clan control goes beyond the use of bureaucratic and market controls and gives employees the power to make decisions and give suggestions while encourages correct and ethical behavior. The corporate management team at Boeing implemented into the hiring policy the importance of employees working together. The company encourages employees to share ideas and knowledge (Boeing, 2011). Boeing recognizes the need for employee input at all levels within the organization. Effect of Control Mechanisms The effectiveness of these mechanisms depends on how well they companies implement and monitor them. Employees may have both positive and negative reactions to the control mechanisms used. Control mechanisms will not only have an effect on the performance of the company and the emotions of employees, but also will affect each of the four functions of management. Effectiveness The bureaucratic mechanisms used by Boeing are productive and successful. Implementing tools such as employee incentive programs has a positive effect on the 160,000 people Boeing employs around the world. Exploring ideas for employees to contribute to the success of Boeing has boosted morale. The Mighty Students (2011) website state that the market control mechanisms that Boeing has put into place help Boeing strategize ways to capitalize on opportunities in the market and respond to market threats. Boeing also uses these tools to monitor competitor performance, enabling them to respond quickly changes in performance. The clan control mechanism encourages employees to participate with new ideas for the company and promotes innovative ideas that can help the company advance. Clan control also encourages team effort where everyone works together to achieve company goals. Boeing uses the concurrent control mechanism successfully to concentrate on customer satisfaction. Using concurrent controls to upgrade technology, Boeing achieved above average customer service in a timely manner while cutting costs of production. Positive and Negative Reactions Controls can have both positive and negative reactions. On the positive side an effective control system will amplify potential benefits and curtail dysfunctional behaviors (Bateman Snell, 2008). Boeing’s management has a control system that keeps the lines of communication open between employees and management. Establishing valid performance standards where the system incorporates all measures of performance creates positive reactions to the control mechanisms. Control mechanisms can also create negative reactions and lead to dysfunctional behavior. For control systems to work, management needs to keep in mind how their employees will react. Three responses to control exist: rigid bureaucratic behavior, tactical behavior, and resistance (Bateman Snell, 2008). Control systems are in place to uncover negative behaviors or actions that take place in an organization. Employees may think that their job is uncertain because of such controls. Affect on Management Functions The four functions of management can be seen at Boeing. Boeing goes through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling with all projects that they implement. Control mechanisms influence the planning function for new projects. According to Bateman and Snell (2008), â€Å"planning lays out a framework for the future and, in this sense, provides a blueprint for control. Control systems, in turn, regulate the allocation and use of resources and, in so doing, facilitate the process of the next phases of planning† (Chapter 16, p. 574). Through the effectiveness of the controls at Boeing future project planning will be more precise. Through the use of market controls, Boeing can apply cost saving measures from one project and apply them when planning future projects. Bureaucratic controls enable Boeing to leverage the knowledge of time it takes to meet the regulations to establish proper time-lines into new projects. The control mechanisms also affect how Boeing organizes resources. For instance, market controls affect how Boeing organizes their monetary resource among their different budgets. Leading is also affected. Managers can use the control mechanisms in place to encourage their employees to reach goals and achieve company standards. Conclusion Control mechanisms help companies monitor success, attain goals, and implement necessary changes. Several control mechanisms exist. Boeing has implemented control mechanisms successfully within their company.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

A day in the life of a nurse

A day in the life of a nurse If you ask your favorite nurse what a typical workday is like, you might get a laugh. No day is â€Å"typical† in the healthcare world, with all the different kinds of situations (both emergency and not) that you may be facing on any given shift. But if you’re thinking about becoming a nurse, it’s important to think about what to expect on the job. So based on stories of real-life nurses, here’s what you might expect to see and do on a typical shift. Nurses can work any time of day, but let’s look at a day shift’s responsibilities and tasks for a hospital nurse. The early wake-upMany daytime nursing shifts start early (often by 7 a.m.), so that means the snooze button is not your friend. Exercise, breakfast, coffee, shower- whatever the morning routine is, it may be happening well before the rest of the world is ready to motivate for the day. If you’re more of a â€Å"saunter in ten minutes late, check your email† kind of person , then nursing might not be the ideal career choice.Checking inA hospital isn’t like a factory, where one shift ends before another starts and no communication needs to happen. The night nurses and the day nurses are a team, and making sure that patients get seamless care means that there’s a daily handoff of information at the start of every shift. The day nurse gets intel on what happened overnight, if patients have specific needs, or if there’s anything important that the nurse needs to know for his or her shift. This is also a chance for the nurse to read up on any physician notes, examine patient charts, prepare for their roster of patients, and review assignments and instructions. This may include checking email, coordinating schedules for the day with doctors, arranging for particular tests, or setting up equipment. Basically, everything that will keep the shift better organized happens up front.This is also a chance for the nurse to check supplies and in ventory too, to make sure they have enough for a shift. This is especially crucial in the emergency room or intensive care wards, where a high-stress situation could arise at any time and when you least want to run low on basic supplies. Everything the nurse does for a patient is usually noted, updated, and charted right away- you don’t want to risk not making an important note on a patient, then getting sidetracked by something else.Morning roundsA lot can happen between shifts, so much of the morning is spent checking in with each patient (new or existing) and tracking their status. It’s common to do bloodwork in the morning, do glucose tests for diabetic patients, take vital signs, etc. Nurses also administer any scheduled medications for their patients during this time. If patients need to be prepped for procedures, it’ll often happen in the morning.Patients that are ready to be discharged from the hospital are ready for their exit procedures, like getting d octor sign-off, removing IVs or other equipment, processing any last tests (like vital signs or bloodwork to confirm that they can safely be discharged), and educating patients (or their family members) on any follow-up care needs.On these morning rounds, nurses also typically help their patients with daily living tasks, like eating breakfast (for patients who can’t do it themselves), bathing, going to the bathroom, getting dressed, or walking around.Mid-day/lunchLunchtime for nurses is rarely a set time period. Obviously eating lunch is necessary if you want to keep up your energy, but having the time to do it can be a luxury when you’re dealing with an endless list of patients who have immediate needs all day. Many nurses grab a quick bite somewhere nearby (either in the hospital or close by) when they can. Lunchtime could be cut short by an emergency or just a bustling schedule. Meal times and personal time during the day are definitely at a premium for nurses, depe nding on the workload and the type of facility where you work. A clinic with set appointments is likely very different from a hospital or urgent care situation, when you could be needed at any time. Strategic food (like something you bring from home and can eat fast if necessary, or food you can grab from the cafeteria) is key.Afternoon roundsMuch like the morning rounds, afternoon rounds are kicked off by a check-in process to see if there are new patients, if patients have been discharged, or if any patent’s status has changed since the morning. Nurses do a new round of checking in with each patient, reviewing their charts for updates, making notes as necessary, and again- keeping close track of everything happening with his or her patients. Afternoon is also time for a new round of meds being distributed to patients, as well as any follow-up tests or previously scheduled procedures. Nurses help prep the patients as needed.The afternoon might also include visiting hours, so nurses are often tasked with updating family members on a patient’s condition, educating them about what the patient’s medical needs will be once he or she leaves, and answering patient questions.For a post-surgical ward, nurses may also start seeing an influx of patients coming out of surgery and recovery. The nurse follows up with surgeons and physicians as necessary, setting up each patient for his or her next tests, procedures, or milestones. The nurse is also likely to help with things like changing bandages or dressing and ensuring that these post-surgical patients are comfortable.And if there’s time in between all of these many tasks, the afternoon may have some chances to catch up on administrative tasks like patient charts, making notes, or email. But like with lunch or personal breaks, there’s never really a guarantee that the nurse will have a full chunk of time to sit down and attend to these things.Checking outJust like at the beginning of t he day, the end of the day sees the shift handover process between day nurses and night nurses. There’s the nurse-to-nurse download of information, either in person or via detailed notes and patient charts. The day isn’t over just yet- the nurse needs to make sure that the transition to the next shift goes just as seamlessly as his or her own shift started in the morning so that patients are getting consistent care. That means checking and double-checking the patient information to make sure everything’s as accurate and clear as it can be.Before leaving, the nurse may also start prepping for the next day’s shift: reviewing appointments, checking email, reviewing assignments. At that point, the nurse gets to leave, only to start the process again in about 12 hours.What a nurse’s day is like can vary in a few different ways. For example, a home nurse will have a different set of tasks than a hospital nurse, who will have a different day than a nurse in a private practice. And no matter what a nurse does and where he or she does it, there’s always the unpredictability of working in the medical world. You always need to be sharp, and ready for emergencies or urgent needs- patients don’t care if you were out late last night or if you really just need a mental break for a few minutes to clear your head. It’s an incredibly demanding field, but can be a highly rewarding one.And if you’re thinking about taking on this daily nursing life, we have the tools to help you get started.How to Become a Labor and Delivery NurseThe Complete Stress Management Guide for Nurses14 Things You Need to Know as a New NurseTop 3 Survival Traits of New NursesJob Spotlight: Clinical NurseCreate a Winning Registered Nurse ResumeHow Long Does It Take to Become a Nurse?What You Need to be a Stellar Nurse

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Percentage and Percentile

Percentage and Percentile Percentage and Percentile Percentage and Percentile By Maeve Maddox The following paragraph occurred in the denunciation of a certain person in a letter to the editor in my local paper: He has obstructed the most wholesome and necessary programs which provide for the common good, and has awarded massive financial advantages to a small percentile of the rich. This erroneous substitution of the word percentile for percentage merits attention. This is not the first time Ive encountered it. Some speakers and writers may feel that percentile sounds more high class than more ordinary percentage; the word may therefore be in danger of catching on as a genteelism, like disinterested for uninterested. A percentage is a part of a whole expressed in hundredths. It can also mean, as the letter writer intended, an indeterminate part of a number. Merriam-Webster defines percentile as the value of the statistical variable that marks the boundary between any two consecutive intervals in a distribution of 100 intervals each containing one percent of the total population called also centile The College Board site explains the use of percentiles this way: Percentiles compare your scores to those of other students who took the test. Say, for example, your critical reading score is 500. If the national percentile for a score of 500 is 47, then this means you did better than 47 percent of the national group of college-bound seniors. (NOTE: An NPR score reports comparative rank among test-takers, not necessarily mastery of a subject.) The only time to use the word percentile is when talking about statistics. For everything else, theres percentage. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for â€Å"Food†Yay, Hooray, Woo-hoo and Other AcclamationsHow Do You Pronounce "Often"?

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

International Criminal Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

International Criminal Law - Essay Example of international crimes is even more complicated because the enforcement of the penal statute is carried out by international bodies against individual persons for acts committed in different countries. Where the international tribunal has jurisdiction, however, it is able to add further definition to a new offense. Such is the case with the crime of genocide. The crime of genocide is a relatively new name for a violent act that had long existed, merely because it has only recently been criminalized. Quigley2 refers to the crime of genocide consisting of forcible acts that are directed against individual members of a group in a way that threatens a group, although closer examination reveals that there are fine points that qualify acts of genocide. Most such atrocities are coincidental to the occurrence of war. In the twentieth century, the earliest such atrocity was in 1915 when Turkey, fearing that its two million Armenian population would side with its enemies, began deporting this population to Syria and Mesopotamia. The deportation was particularly brutal and involved several mass executions, during which several hundred Armenians died, prompting Arnold Toynbee to lament it as â€Å"the murder of a nation.†3 It took another world war and another three decades before the offense of genocide was conceived. The Germans committed such violence against indiscriminate and countless people that Churchill decried it as â€Å"a crime without a name†.4 The term â€Å"genocide† was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer who escaped Nazi occupation and worked in Washington war intelligence. The word, as Lemkin himself described, is â€Å"a hybrid consisting of the Greek genes meaning race, nation or tribe; and the Latin cide meaning killing5 (e.g. suicide, homicide). After having chronicled the atrocities of the Third Reich, Lemkin had a circumscribed perspective of what would comprise the offense of genocide. He wrote that: â€Å"Genocide is effected through a

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Is the Latest Technology Crane ALII Worth Buying Essay

Is the Latest Technology Crane ALII Worth Buying - Essay Example The second option looks more feasible given the current situation. Although both projects are yielding a negative NPV, but the second option is giving a smaller negative number, hence we can safely conclude that the company should wait for 5 more years before buying the latest technology crane ALII. NPV shows us that the project would yield more cash inflow than outflow, but the negative number shows us that the outflows would be greater than the inflow. The best option for the company is trying to increase its revenue base in order to improve the situation. Just having two or three projects supporting such a large purchase is not feasible and hence the company should market more often to attract more customers. In case these are two exhaustive options, the company should clearly select the option b because it is yielding a lower negative number and hence if the company wants to save its position it should try to adopt the option b. Money rates of returns do not reflect the time value of money. All economies face the phenomenon that the purchasing power of money constantly falls with the passage of time. Hence, inflation is needed to be taken into account in order to arrive at the real rate of return or rate of returns that are adjusted against inflation. The discounting factor of 23 percent has been adjust by multiplying it by 104 in order to arrive at the inflation adjusted discount rate to give better idea regarding the position of the company and how much it should earn in order to safeguard its position against falling value of a dollar due to inflation and alternative projects that are available to a company. This way the money return has been adjusted to real return and provides a better picture of how much return the company needs to earn on its projects to safeguard the value of its wealth in real terms and to make sure that it is not losing money. If a company does not pay heed to the time value of mo ney it cannot tell whether it has made or lost money and hence it is considered one of the fundamental concepts of finance and needs to be taken into account every time the company needs to make an important decision.  

Monday, January 27, 2020

The effect of technology on Human Resource recruitment

The effect of technology on Human Resource recruitment In every organization it is important to have a right person for the right job. Recruitment and Selection plays a major role in this situation. Use of new technology is putting considerable pressure on how employers Recruit and Select staff. Talent Acquisition is a process of discovering the sources of manpower to meet requirements of the staffing schedule and to employee effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Handling humans is at the heart of almost all real-life management problems. What it takes to succeed humans? Why humans are a resource and what makes them special? The purpose of this assignment is to bring out issues involved in the management of human resources (HRM), both from the existing theory as well as practice. The assignment will examine human at work and discuss different aspects which are basic to human motivation at work and in satisfying career objectives within organisations. HRM comprises of various issues right from recruitment-selection to performance appraisal, training and development of employees in organisation and opportunity for management provided by employee diversity. My objectives were to study the key processes and policies for which the company provides vital information. INTRODUCTION John Storey (1989) defined HRM as Set of interrelated policies with an ideological and philosophical underpinning. Storey (1995) defines HRM as a distinctive approach to employment management which s seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly c committed and capable workforce, using an array of cultural, structural and personnel t techniques. Sainsbury is a super market which will operates its business in retail sector from t the year 1869. Sainsbury is started by James and Mary Ann Sainsburys. in UK. It has many branches located throughout the country selling different range of products. Sainsbury control a much centralised Human Resources policy in which all decisions are taken by top management. The main objective of Sainsbury is to meet customer needs successfully and provide investors with good financial return. Sainsbury aims are to provide all colleagues right opportunities to develop their skills and are well rewarded for their contribution to the success of business. Sainsbury brand is built upon providing customers quality product at fair prices. Sainsbury store have a particular emphasis on fresh, healthy, safe and tasty food and continues launching new product for the customers. Sainsbury supermarket employs 150000 colleagues and with over 19 million customers are visiting stores each week. Sainsbury offer many products such as food, grocery and other household products. They sell other brand name products as well as Sainsbury brand product, which are often cheaper than other brand names. 1. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION AT SAINSBURY: Sainsbury offers large numbers of job opportunities available in different stores. They looking for people with good customer skills but job are available in clerical, stockroom and technical rules. Flexible contract, term time contracts and dual contracts offer colleagues to work on hours basic. Job opportunities are advertised on in-store job board, in local newspaper and at job centre plus. Sainsbury opening new supermarkets and local and central stores in many towns creating job vacancies in advance, Sainsbury recruit staff two or more months before in order to allow staff training. RECRUITMENT FOR GRADUATES: Sainsbury recruit around 100 graduates colleagues every year and more than 70 work within stores. Graduates recruitment is conducted online ay Sainsbury graduate recruitment website. Graduates are trained in all aspect of store management under trainee management scheme. Under this training period they will work in all areas of store and later doing their jobs under manager supervision. Work experience offer to school students Sainsbury encourage school students to come our stores for work experience. These placement are organised at a local level. Work-experience student work in different department during their particular time. SAINSBURY SELECTION PROCESS: 1.The first method that they use is collection curriculum vitaes(C.V),letter of Applications and Applications forms from applicant. 2.Sainsbury would then shortlist applicant and is done by recruitment manager. This shortlist of applicant is done to meet criteria that they looking for, right person for the right job. 3.Next would be the interview stage. Interview is the main stage of selecting applicants. A number of question are designed to provide a deeper insight into candidates, An interview enables candidates to present their case of selection. It will show the difference between those who are good on paper and those who have good communication skills. 4.Suitable person is selected for the job. They would judge the applicants against the person specification. 2.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The main purpose of training at Sainsburys are: Well trained workers will be more useful. This will help the business in increasing profit as well as achieving companys objectives. Creates a more flexible workforce It would lead to job satisfaction The attitude of the workers would be improved and therefore the image of the company and employees will feel better and more relaxed if they are trained before hand. The employee would reach their potential and the business will be profiting as well as the employee. STORE CONSTRUCTION: To prevent any kind of environmental impact caused during store construction, Sainsbury property services department works clearly with local environmental health officers to ensure that store construction creates less disruption as possible. An average of 30 weeks is taken to complete the store construction which is currently an industry best and reducing the period when local nuisance is caused. Supervisor is appointed for health and safety legislation projects. The supervisor makes sure that contractors follow procedures aimed at avoiding:-  · nuisance caused by noise, dust and smoke;  · water pollution;  · unnecessary damage to flora, fauna and archaeological features;  · Poor waste management SENIOR MANAGEMENT TRAINING Senior management training is focused to meet the business and individual needs. Through promotion, external recruitment and training, senior management capabilities can developed. Through running training courses Sainsbury aims to achieve specific benefits and training needs restructuring if these benefits are not achieved. Training and development helps Sainsbury to improve quality and service and therefore productivity can b raised. Training increases the individual motivation and creates flexibility around the workforce. INVESTORS IN PEOPLE(IIP) IIP is a national standard supported by the department for education and skills. Sainsbury became the first major food retailer to achieve Corporate Investors in people recognition. This followed a three-year programme involving 450 assessment covering 13500 Sainsbury colleagueship recognition is a unique achievement that gained from the bottom up rather than the top down. Almost every unit that makes up Sainsbury supermarket went through the process individually. Company that has been recognised by IIP is capable in adopting and implementing its four fundamental principles:- Promise to improve all employees to achieve business goals and targets; Regularly reviewing training and development needs in the context of the business; Taking relevant action to meet training and development needs throughout Peoples employment; Evaluating outcomes of training and development for individuals and the Organisation as a basis for continuous improvement 3.DIVERSITY AT SAINSBURY:- In 2004/05,Sainsbury introduced a diversity management website on internet. This site was introduced to guide about managing faith and belief, disability management and guidance on local commodity recruitment. The site is planned to help all colleagues gain more awareness of other people needs. We talk about equality and diversity policy at training to all colleagues and deliver written guidance to managers on equal opportunities and recruitment of disabled colleagues. This year Sainsbury using Disability Confident which is a new learning means to help colleagues in our stores move beyond disability awareness to become more confident in dealing with disability. Colleagues can report discrimination or harassment through our fair treatment and complaint procedure. Sainsbury began to develop plans to target older workers. It introduced retirement plan pension protection mechanisms. Full payment is received if anybody recruited until their 65th birthday. In application form age has been removed and its requested for monitoring purposely only. Mixed age workforce has led to improved customer satisfaction by perfectly reflecting the profile of their customer. Sainsburys diversity and equality policies are an important part of their business plan. All diversity and equality are anticipated to add value to improve both customer services and sales. Flexibility in covering holidays has improved as different religious festivals are spread out across the year. A calendar of religious festivals has been produced and displayed in stores. (Sainsburys case study from age positive campaign) http;//www.efa-agediversity.org.uk/case-studies/index.htm Employers forum on age case studies of employers who have adopted approaches based on the principles of age diversity 4.PERFORMANCE MANGEMENT Performance Management Performance Management is a means of getting better results from the company, individuals and teams by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards and competence requirements. Performance Management is very crucial at Sainsburys. Sainsburys manage the performance of its employees effectively so as to remain competitive in the market. At Sainsburys, various techniques are used to know how well individual employees doing their responsibility and for the managers to be able to monitor how well they are carrying out. Performance monitoring provides information which is of value for identifying future training or promotion opportunities and areas where insufficient skills or knowledge could be judged as a threat to an employees efficiency. Managers exercise control at organisation and individual level through: planning by setting objectives and targets creating performance standards observing actual performance Comparing performance against targets correcting mistakes and taking action Management by Objectives The process described above contributes to management by objectives, in which the performance of the individual and Sainsburys is regularly being measured against objectives and targets which have been set by managers and employees. Objectives at Sainsburys are determined through discussions between managers and employees. This method will involve both a top-down and a bottom-up style. The manager at Sainsburys presents the corporate objectives and the individuals and team members then state what they feel can be achieved. The objectives are more likely to be successful if they are: Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Time-related CONCLUSION This assignment emphasis on the importance of human resource management process prevailing Sainsburys. This assignment also gives the outlook how the organisation remain competitive in the market. Brief introduction of all processes is the following RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS Recruitment is the process of inviting people in the organisation. Caliber of its manager and workforce is the key to the success and failure of the organisation. The selection is rejecting or arranging of people. Selection tends to be negative because good percentage of people is rejected. The selection process differs from company to company but it should meet the requirement of the job. Sainsburys has a very well recognised Recruitment and Selection process for both the managers and the employees. It uses such selection process so that they can access each aspect of the people that is significant for doing job. In sainsburys HR department gives the criteria for selecting employees. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Sainsburys has designed its own system of analysing the training needs for their employees. Training system is divided into two catagories: Task Analysis: Training for new employees Performance Analysis: Training for existing employees. Training Methods: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ On the Job Training à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Off the Job Training à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Stimulated Training Training Tools: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Audio-visual Tools `à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Programmed Learning à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Lectures à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Informal Training RECOMMENDATION I would suggest to Sainsburys introducing some new products which will give to a company a comparative advantage over their challengers. Sainsburys would be an opening of local shops located in the city centre rather than on the outskirts of the city. Customers frequently choose local shops rather than supermarkets to save time and money if they do not need large purchase, because undoubtedly in large stores often they purchase more than actually have planned. At Sainsburys, human resources management is the most important department. The right quantity of labour, skills of employees and degree of motivation. To understand if Sainsbury are competively compared to their rivals, they need to compare their prices of product with that of rivals. A way of finding out rivals information is by going undercover. A member of the Sainsbury staff could visit rivals supermarket like Asda, Tesco and note the prices that are charged for the same product that Sainsbury selling. If the prices is cheaper for that particular product that Sainsbury selling then Sainsburys have to cut down the prices for that particular product. If the prices are higher at Tesco than Sainsbury for that product, are ahead in competition over Tesco. The human resources management department at Sainsburys control the workforce and see how they perform. A poor workforce in terms of lazy workers could result in low output. Mayos theory, working in team is virtually important for Sainsburys and creates friendly environment which can increase companys profit. The human resource department get the workforce and main problem after that is keeping them happy. Rivals may look for Sainsburys existing employees by offering them better pay and promotion. The HRM department at Sainsburys should be more alert of this problem and may offer their employees more pay and promotion in order to keep existing employees. If promotion or better pay offered to employees then he/she would feel important to business. HRM needs to safeguard that Sainsbury employees right quality and quantity workers. HRM department at Sainsburys have to plan in advanced, if a manager is leaving in near future than advance planning for recruitment, interviewing and selection is important in order to safeguard department not to get suffered and business not to be affected by a member of staff leaving. Maslow theory, pay may have something to do with the employees being dissatisfied. At Sainsburys, if labour turnover is high, then is regarded as a failure by the HRM department. If labour turnover is low then is regarded as a success by the HRM department. To analyse absenteeism rate is also important. HRM seeks to ensure that absenteeism is low. High absenteeism caused lack of commitment, poor motivation and poor management by the HRM. Maintaining 100% service levels as the online business grows Sainsburys is now operating with high service levels. Even so, there is still some room for improvement to ensure that all orders are delivered in full and on time. There are a few ways in which Sainsburys could further still improve service levels; however, the law of diminishing returns would come into play at this stage and so investment would need to be able to provide definite improvements. Also, the online business is growing at a rapid rate, ahead of overall market growth. Picking such large orders from stores during busy periods could become an issue httpHYPERLINK http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/analystreports/corporate/ovum-sainsbury-cs-170835.pdf://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/analystreports/corporate/ovum-sainsbury-cs-170835.pdf

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Speech the Graduates Didnt Hear

Recent research shows that the last fifty years of college education has been a waste. It didn't provide students with adequate preparation for the real world, so through It all out the window because It was all wrong. An article came across my desk the other day â€Å"The Speech The Graduates Didn't Hear† by Jacob Ensures. It suggests that the last four years of their college career has prepared them for a world which doesn't exist. Not allowing them to fail, and providing an easy way out. Giving things they demented yet didn't deserve.I felt as if it was education that failed not the students. On several notes the writer admits education was what failed not the students: we created an altogether forgiving world, we didn't want to be bothered, and we have accepted failures and k quitters. Ensures went Into details and said â€Å"which ever slight effort you gave was all that was demented† (1). Why should that be enough for a professor who represents an Institution that promotes a higher level of learning? Raise the standards if you think they are not high enough. If his forgiving world you have created Is not realistic. Sake it realistic. As a student myself, I've experienced the lack of care from professors. However when we break appointments or don't meet deadlines make exceptions with consequences. Prepare us of what's to happen in the real world. Doing us a favor that sets us back isn't really a favor. On the other hand, why should we be tolerated or taught things that should be unlearned? According to Carter A Daniel, â€Å"we had to do it, for the sake of education† (CTD. In Ensures 2). To an extent I can agree. Still as leaders, I feel they hocked be held responsible. Why aren't they being held responsible? In life every action has a reaction. As students if we see the lack of care, or respect from a professor it will reflect In our work and attitude towards them. Professors seem not to care as much because to them it's the student' s life and choice. The choices we make don't Impact them directly so why should they care. As Ensures stated â€Å"quitters are no heroes†, that's what we are taught in the real world. (1) However in college it's somehow accepted. Teach me, mold me, show me the right way. How can we learn If I've never been taught?How can we know failure if we've never really failed? The writer clearly states â€Å"With us you could argue about why your errors were not errors, why mediocre work really was excellent, why you could take pride in routine and slipshod presentations† (Ensures 1 Clearly these excuses are being accepted instead of corrected. Professor Carter A Daniel said it best when he wrote â€Å"Education has failed you by being easy, free, forgiving, attentive, comfortable, Interesting, and unchallenged fun† (CTD. Ensures 2). I say It's time for the facilities ND students to come together and make a change.Do it because we have to. Do it for education. By Indian t hrough it all out the window because it was all wrong. An article came across my world which doesn't exist. Not allowing them to fail, and providing an easy way out. Failed not the students. On several notes the writer admits education was what failed bothered, and we have accepted failures and k quitters. Ensures went into details should that be enough for a professor who represents an institution that promotes a this forgiving world you have created is not realistic, make it realistic. As a student should be held responsible.Why aren't they being held responsible? In life every professor it will reflect in our work and attitude towards them. Professors seem not to don't impact them directly so why should they care. As Ensures stated â€Å"quitters are somehow accepted. Teach me, mold me, show me the right way. How can we learn if we've never been taught? How can we know failure if we've never really failed? The slipshod presentations† (Ensures 1). Clearly these excuses are being accepted interesting, and unchallenged fun† (CTD. Ensures 2). I say it's time for the facilities

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Function of Criticism at the Present Time

THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME Matthew Arnold THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME Table of Contents THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1 Matthew Arnold†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1 i THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME Matthew Arnold This page copyright  © 2001 Blackmask Online. ttp://www. blackmask. com â€Å"Our antagonist is our helper. This amicable conflict with difficulty obliges us to an intimate acquaintance with our object, and compels us to consider it in all its relations. It will not suffer us to be superficial. â€Å" BURKE. THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME. MANY objections have been made to a proposition which, in some remarks of mine on translating Homer, I ventured to put forth; a proposition about criticism, and its importance at the present day.I said: â€Å"Of the literature of France and Germany, as of the intellect of Europe in general, the main effort, for now many years, has been a critical effort; the endeavour, in all branches of knowledge, theology, philosophy, history, art, science, to see the object as in itself it really is. † I added, that owing to the operation in English litera? ture of certain causes, â€Å"almost the last thing for which one would come to English literature is just that very thing which now Europe most desires criticism;† and that the power and value of English literature was thereby impaired.More than one rejoinder declared that the importance I here assigned to criticism was excessive, and asserted the inherent superiority of the creative effort of the human spirit over its critical effort. And the other day, having been led by an excellent notice of Wordsworth published in the North British Review, to turn again to his biography, I found, in the words of this great man, whom I, for one, must always listen to with the profoundest respect, a sentence passed on the critic's business, which seems to justify every possible disparagement of it.Wordsworth says in one of his letters: â€Å"The writers in these publications† (the Reviews), â€Å"while they prosecute their inglorious employment, can? not be supposed to be in a state of mind very favour? able for being affected by the finer influences of a thing so pure as genuine poetry. † And a trustworthy reporter of his conversation quotes a more elaborate judgment to the same effect: â€Å"Wordsworth holds the critical power very low, in? initely lower than the inventive and he said to? da y that if the quantity of time consumed in writing critiques on the works of others were given to original com? position, of whatever kind it might be, it would be much better employed; it would make a man find out sooner his own level, and it would do infinitely less mischief. A false or malicious criticism may do much injury to the minds of others; a stupid invention, either in prose or verse, is quite harmless. It is almost too much to expect of poor human nature, that a man capable of producing some effect in one line of literature, should, for the greater good of society, voluntarily doom himself to impotence and obscurity in another. THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 1 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME Still less is this to be expected from men addicted to the composition of the â€Å"false or malicious criticism,† of which Wordsworth speaks. How? ver, everybody would admit that a false or malicious criticism had better never have been written. E very? body, too, would be willing to admit, as a general propo? sition, that the critical faculty is lower than the inventive. But is it true that criticism is really, in itself, a baneful and injurious employment; is it true that all time given to writing critiques on the works of others would be much better employed if it were given to original composition, of whatever kind this may be?Is it true that Johnson had better have gone on producing more Irenes instead of writing his Lives of the Poets; nay, is it certain that Wordsworth himself was better employed in making his Ecclesiastical Sonnets, than when he made his celebrated Preface, so full of criticism, and criticism of the works of others? Wordsworth was himself a great critic, and it is to be sincerely regretted that he has not left us more criticism; Goethe was one of the greatest of critics, and we may sincerely congratu? late ourselves that he has left us so much criticism.Without wasting time over the exaggeration which Wordsworth's judgment on criticism clearly contains, or over an attempt to trace the causes, not difficult I think to be traced, which may have led Wordsworth to this exaggeration, a critic may with advantage seize an occasion for trying his own conscience, and for asking himself of what real service, at any given moment, the practice of criticism either is, or may be made, to his own mind and spirit, and to the minds and spirits of others. The critical power is of lower rank than the creative.True; but in assenting to this proposition, one or two things are to be kept in mind. It is undeniable that the exercise of a creative power, that a free creative activity, is the true function of man; it is proved to be so by man's finding in it his true happiness. But it is un? deniable, also, that men may have the sense of exercising this free creative activity in other ways than in producing great works of literature or art; if it were not so, all but a very few men would be shut out from the true happiness of all men; they may have it in well? oing, they may have it in learning, they may have it even in criticising. This is one thing to be kept in mind. Another is, that the exercise of the creative power in the production of great works of literature or art, however high this exercise of it may rank, is not at all epochs and under all conditions possible; and that therefore labour may be vainly spent in attempting it, which might with more fruit be used in preparing for it, in rendering it possible. This creative power works with elements, with materials; what if it has not those materials, those elements, ready for its use?In that case it must surely wait till they are ready. Now in literature, I will limit myself to literature, for it is about literature that the question arises, the elements with which the creative power works are ideas; the best ideas, on every matter which literature touches, current at the time; at any rate we may lay it down as certain that in modern literature no manifestation of the creative power not working with these can be very important or fruitful.And I say current at the time, not merely accessible at the time; for creative literary genius does not principally show itself in discovering new ideas; that is rather the business of the philosopher; the grand work of literary genius is a work of synthesis and exposition, not of analysis and discovery; its gift lies in the faculty of being happily inspired by a certain intellectual and spiritual atmosphere, by a certain order of ideas, when it finds itself in them; of dealing divinely with these ideas, presenting them in the most effective and attractive combinations, making beautiful works with them, in short.But it must have the atmosphere, it must find itself amidst the order of ideas, in order to work freely; and these it is not so easy to command. This is why great creative epochs in literature are so rare; this is why there is so much that is unsatisfactory in the productions of many men of real genius; because for the creation of a master? work of literature two powers must concur, the power of the man and the power of the moment, and the man is not enough without the moment; the creative power has, for its happy exercise, appointed elements, and those ele? ents are not in its own control. Nay, they are more within the control of the critical power. It is the business of the critical power, as I said in the words already quoted, â€Å"in all branches of know? ledge, theology, philosophy, history, art, science, to see the object as in itself it really is. † Thus it tends, at last, to make an intellectual situation of which the creative power can profitably avail itself.It tends to establish an order of ideas, if not absolutely true, yet true by comparison with that which it displaces; to make the best ideas prevail. Presently these new ideas reach society, the touch of truth is the touch of life, and there is a stir and growth eve rywhere; out of this stir and growth come the creative epochs of literature. Or, to narrow our range, and quit these considerations of the general march of genius and of society, THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 2THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME considera? tions which are apt to become too abstract and impalp? able, every one can see that a poet, for instance, ought to know life and the world before dealing with them in poetry; and life and the world being, in modern times, very complex things, the creation of a modern poet, to be worth much, implies a great critical effort behind it; else it must be a comparatively poor, barren, and short? ived affair. This is why Byron's poetry had so little endurance in it, and Goethe's so much; both Byron and Goethe had a great productive power, but Goethe's was nourished by a great critical effort providing the true materials for it, and Byron's was not; Goethe knew life and the world, the poet's necessary subjects, mu ch more comprehensively and thoroughly than Byron. He knew a great deal more of them, and he knew them much more as they really are.It has long seemed to me that the burst of creative activity in our literature, through the first quarter of this century, had about it, in fact, something premature; and that from this cause its productions are doomed, most of them, in spite of the sanguine hopes which accompanied and do still accompany them, to prove hardly more lasting than the productions of far less splendid epochs. And this prematureness comes from its having proceeded without having its proper data, without sufficient materials to work with.In other words, the English poetry of the first quarter of this century, with plenty of energy, plenty of creative force, did not know enough. This makes Byron so empty of matter, Shelley so incoherent, Words? worth even, profound as he is, yet so wanting in com? pleteness and variety. Wordsworth cared little for books, and disparaged Goethe. I admire Wordsworth, as he is, so much that I cannot wish him different; and it is vain, no doubt, to imagine such a man different from what he is, to suppose that he could have been different; but surely the one thing wanting to make Wordsworth an even greater poet than he is, is thought richer, and his influence of wider application, was that he should have read more books, among them, no doubt, those of that Goethe whom he disparaged without reading him. But to speak of books and reading may easily lead to a misunderstanding here. It was not really books and reading that lacked to our poetry, at this epoch; Shelley had plenty of reading, Coleridge had immense reading. Pindar and Sophocles, as we all say so glibly, and often with so little discernment of the real import of what we are saying, had ot many books; Shakspeare was no deep reader. True; but in the Greece of Pindar and Sophocles, in the England of Shakspeare, the poet lived in a current of ideas in the highest degree ani mating and nourishing to the creative power; society was, in the fullest measure, permeated by fresh thought, intelligent and alive; and this state of things is the true basis for the creative power's exercise, in this it finds its data, its materials, truly ready for its hand; all the books and reading in the world are only valuable as they are helps to this.Even when this does not actually exist, books and reading may enable a man to construct a kind of semblance of it in his own mind, a world of knowledge and intelligence in which he may live and work; this is by no means an equivalent, to the artist, for the nationally diffused life and thought of the epochs of Sophocles or Shakspeare, but, besides that it may be a means of preparation for such epochs, it does really constitute, if many share in it, a quickening and sustaining atmosphere of great value. Such an atmosphere the many? sided learning and the long and widely? ombined critical effort of Germany formed for Goethe, when he lived and worked. There was no national glow of life and thought there, as in the Athens of Pericles, or the England of Elizabeth. That was the poet's weakness. But there was a sort of equivalent for it in the complete culture and unfettered thinking of a large body of Germans. That was his strength. In the England of the first quarter of this century, there was neither a national glow of life and thought, such as we had in the age of Elizabeth, nor yet a culture and a force of learning and criticism, such as were to be found in Germany.Therefore the creative power of poetry wanted, for success in the highest sense, materials and a basis; a thorough interpretation of the world was necessarily denied to it. At first sight it seems strange that out of the immense stir of the French Revolution and its age should not have come a crop of works of genius equal to that which came out of the stir of the great productive time of Greece, or out of that of the Renaissance, with its powerfu l episode the Reformation. But the truth is that the stir of the French Revolution took a character which essentially distinguished it from such movements as these.These were, in the main, disinterestedly intellectual and spiritual movements; movements in which the human spirit looked for its satisfaction in itself and in the in? creased play of its own activity: the French Revolution took a political, practical character. The movement which went on in France under the old regime, from 1700 to 1789, was far more really akin than that of the Revolution itself to the movement of the Renaissance; the France of Voltaire and THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 3THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME Rousseau told far more powerfully upon the mind of Europe than the France of the Revolution. Goethe reproached this last expressly with having â€Å"thrown quiet culture back. † Nay, and the true key to how much in our Byron, even in our Words? worth, is this! that the y had their source in a great movement of feeling, not in a great movement of mind. The French Revolution, however, that object of so much blind love and so much blind hatred, found undoubtedly its motive? ower in the intelligence of men and not in their practical sense; this is what distinguishes it from the English Revolution of Charles the First's time; this is what makes it a more spiritual event than our Re? volution, an event of much more powerful and world? wide interest, though practically less successful; it appeals to an order of ideas which are universal, certain, permanent. 1789 asked of a thing, Is it rational? 1642 asked of a thing, Is it legal? or, when it went furthest, Is it according to conscience?This is the English fashion; a fashion to be treated, within its own sphere, with the highest respect; for its success, within its own sphere, has been prodigious. But what is law in one place, is not law in another; what is law here to? day, is not law even here tomorrow ; and as for conscience, what is binding on one man's conscience is not binding on another's; the old woman who threw her stool at the head of the surpliced minister in St. Giles's Church at Edinburgh obeyed an impulse to which millions of the human race may be permitted to remain strangers. But the pre? criptions of reason are absolute, unchanging, of universal validity; to count by tens is the simplest way of counting,* *A writer in the Saturday Review, who has offered me some counsels about style for which I am truly grateful, suggests that this should stand as follows: To take as your unit an established base of notation, ten being given as the base of notation, is, except for numbers under twenty, the simplest way of counting. I tried it so, but I assure him, without jealousy, that the more I looked at his improved way of putting the thing, the less I liked it.It seems to me that the maxim, in this shape, would never make the tour of a world, where most of us are plain easy? sp oken people. He forgets that he is a reasoner, a member of a school, a disciple of the great Bentham, and that he naturally talks in the scientific way of his school, with exact accuracy, philosophic propriety; I am a mere solitary wanderer in search of the light, and I talk an artless, un? studied, every? day, familiar language. But, after all, this is the language of the mass of the world.The mass of Frenchmen who felt the force of that prescription of the reason which my reviewer, in his purified language, states thus: to count by tens has the advantage of taking as your unit the base of an * that is a proposition of which every one, from here to the Antipodes, feels the force; at least, I should say so, if we did not live in a country where it is not impossible that any morning we may find a letter in the Times declaring that a decimal coinage is an absurdity.That a whole nation should have been pene? trated with an enthusiasm for pure reason, and with an ardent zeal for making its prescriptions triumph, is a very * established system of notation, certainly rendered this, for themselves, in some such loose language as mine. My point is that they felt the force of a prescription of the reason so strongly that they legislated in accordance with it. They may have been wrong in so doing; they may have foolishly omitted to take other prescriptions of reason into account; he non? English world does not seem to think so, but let that pass; what I say is, that by legislating as they did they showed a keen susceptibility to purely rational, intellectual considerations. On the other hand, does my reviewer say that we keep our mone? tary system unchanged because our nation has grasped the intellec? tual proposition which he puts, in his masterly way, thus : {{â€Å"}}to count by twelves has the advantage of taking as your unit a number in itself far more convenient than ten for that purpose? Surely not; but because our system is there, and we are too practical a pe ople to trouble ourselves about its intellectual aspect. To take a second case. The French Revolutionists abolished the sale of offices, because they thought (my reviewer will kindly allow me to put the thing in my imperfect, popular language) the sale of offices a gross anomaly. We still sell commissions in the army. I have no doubt my reviewer, with his scientific powers, can easily invent some beautiful formula to make us appear to be doing this on the purest philosophical principles; the rinciples of Hobbes, Locke, Bentham, Mr. Mill, Mr. Bain, and himself, their THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 4 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME worthy disciple. But surely the plain unscientific account of the matter is, that we have the anomalous practice (he will allow it is, in itself, an anomalous practice? ) established, and that (in the words of senatorial wisdom already quoted) â€Å"for a thing to be an anomaly we consider to be no objection to it whatever. â⠂¬  emarkable thing, when we consider how little of mind, or anything so worthy and quickening as mind, comes into the motives which alone, in general, impel great masses of men. In spite of the extravagant direction given to this enthusiasm, in spite of the crimes and follies in which it lost itself, the French Revolution derives, from the force, truth, and universality of the ideas which it took for its law, and from the passion with which it could inspire a multitude for these ideas, a unique and still living power; it is, it will probably long remain, he greatest, the most animating event in history. And, as no sincere passion for the things of the mind, even though it turn out in many respects an unfortunate passion, is ever quite thrown away and quite barren of good, France has reaped from hers one fruit, the natural and legitimate fruit, though not precisely the grand fruit she expected; she is the country in Europe where the people is most alive. But the mania for giving an immediate political and practical application to all these fine ideas of the reason was fatal.Here an Englishman is in his element: on this theme we can all go on for hours. And all we are in the habit of saying on it has undoubtedly a great deal of truth. Ideas cannot be too much prized in and for themselves, cannot be too much lived with; but to transport them abruptly into the world of politics and practice, violently to revolutionise this world to their bidding, that is quite another thing. There is the world of ideas and there is the world of practice; the French are often for suppressing the one and the English the other; but neither is to be suppressed.A member of the House of Commons said to me the other day: â€Å"That a thing is an anomaly, I consider to be no objection to it what? ever. † I venture to think he was wrong; that a thing is an anomaly is an objection to it, but absolutely and in the sphere of ideas: it is not necessarily, under such and such circumsta nces, or at such and such a moment, an objection to it in the sphere of politics and practice. Joubert has said beautifully: â€Å"C'est la force et le droit qui reglent toutes choses dans le monde; la force en attendant le droit. † Force and right are the governors of this world; force till right is ready.Force till right is ready; and till right is ready, force, the existing order of things, is justified, is the legitimate ruler. But right is something moral, and implies inward recognition, free assent of the will; we are not ready for right, right, so far as we are concerned, is not ready, until we have attained this sense of seeing it and willing it. The way in which for us it may change and transform force, the existing order of things, and become, in its turn, the legitimate ruler of the world, will depend on the way in which, when our time comes, we see it and will it.Therefore for other people enamoured of their own newly discerned right, to attempt to impose it upon us as ours, and violently to substitute their right for our force, is an act of tyranny, and to be resisted. It sets at nought the second great half of our maxim, force till right is ready. This was the grand error of the French Revolution, and its movement of ideas, by quitting the intellectual sphere and rushing furiously into the political sphere, ran, in? eed, a prodigious and memorable course, but produced no such intellectual fruit as the movement of ideas of the Renaissance, and created, in opposition to itself, what I may call an epoch of concentration. The great force of that epoch of concentration was England; and the great voice of that epoch of concentration was Burke. It is the fashion to treat Burke's writings on the French Revolution as superannuated and conquered by the event; as the eloquent but unphilosophical tirades of bigotry and prejudice.I will not deny that they are often disfigured by the violence and passion of the moment, and that in some directions Burke' s view was bounded, and his observation therefore at fault; but on the whole, and for those who can make the needful corrections, what distinguishes these writings is their profound, permanent, fruitful, philosophical truth; they contain the true philosophy of an epoch of concentration, dissipate the heavy atmosphere which its own nature is apt to engender round it, and make its resistance rational instead of mechanical.But Burke is so great because, almost alone in England, he brings thought to bear upon politics, he saturates politics with thought; it is his accident that his ideas were at the service of an epoch of concentration, not of an epoch of expansion; it is his characteristic that he so lived by ideas, and had such a source of them welling up within him, that he could float even an epoch of con? centration and English Tory politics with them. It does not hurt him that Dr. Price and the Liberals were enraged with him; it does not even hurt him that George the Third THE FUN CTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 5THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME and the Tories were enchanted with him. His greatness is that he lived in a world which neither English Liberal? ism nor English Toryism is apt to enter; the world of ideas, not the world of catchwords and party habits. So far is it from being really true of him that he â€Å"to party gave up what was meant for mankind,† that at the very end of his fierce struggle with the French Revolution, after all his invectives against its false pretensions, hollow? ess, and madness, with his sincere conviction of its mischievousness, he can close a memorandum on the best means of combating it, some of the last pages he ever wrote, the Thoughts on French Affairs, in December, 1791, with these striking words: â€Å"The evil is stated, in my opinion, as it exists. The remedy must be where power, wisdom, and information, I hope, are more united with good intentions than they can be with me. I have done wi th this subject, I believe, for ever. It has given me many anxious moments for the last two years.If a great change is to be made in human affairs, the minds of men be fitted to it; the general opinions and feelings will draw that way. Every fear, every hope will forward it; and then they who persist in opposing this mighty current in human affairs, will appear rather to resist the decrees of Providence itself, than the mere designs of men. They will not be resolute and firm, but perverse and obstinate. † That return of Burke upon himself has always seemed to me one of the finest things in English literature, or indeed, in any literature.That is what I call living by ideas; when one side of a question has long had your earnest support, when all your feelings are engaged, when you hear all round you no language but one, when your party talks this language like a steam engine and can imagine no other, still to be able to think, still to be irresistibly carried, if so it be, by t he current of thought to the opposite side of the question, and, like Balaam, to be unable to speak anything but what the Lord has put in your mouth.I know nothing more striking, and I must add that I know nothing more un? English. For the Englishman in general is like my friend the Member of Parliament, and believes, point? blank, that for a thing to be an anomaly is absolutely no objection to it whatever. He is like the Lord Auckland of Burke's day, who, in a memorandum on the French Revolution, talks of â€Å"certain miscreants, assuming the name of philosophers, who have presumed themselves capable of establishing a new system of society. The Englishman has been called a political animal, and he values what is political and practical so much that ideas easily become objects of dislike in his eyes, and thinkers â€Å"miscreants,† because ideas and thinkers have rashly meddled with politics and practice. This would be all very well if the dislike and neglect confined thems elves to ideas transported out of their own sphere, and meddling rashly with practice; but they are inevitably extended to ideas as such, and to the whole life of intelligence; practice is everything, a free play of the mind is nothing.The notion of the free play of the mind upon all subjects being a pleasure in itself, being an object of desire, being an essential provider of elements without which a nation's spirit, whatever compensations it may have for them, must, in the long run, die of inanition, hardly enters into an Englishman's thoughts. It {{is}} [[[it]]] noticeable that the word curiosity, which in other languages is used in a good sense, to mean, as a high and fine quality of man's nature, just this disinterested love of a free play of the mind on all subjects, for its own sake, t is noticeable, I say, that this word has in our language no sense of the kind, no sense but a rather bad and disparaging one. But criticism, real criticism, is essentially the exercise of this very quality; it obeys an instinct prompting it to try to know the best that is known and thought in the world, irrespectively of practice, politics, and everything of the kind; and to value knowledge and thought as they approach this best, without the intrusion of any other considerations whatever.This is an instinct for which there is, I think, little original sympathy in the practical English nature, and what there was of it has undergone a long benumbing period of blight and suppression in the epoch of concentration which followed the French Revolution. THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 6 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME But epochs of concentration cannot well endure for ever; epochs of expansion, in the due course of things, follow them.Such an epoch of expansion seems to be opening in this country. In the first place all danger of a hostile forcible pressure of foreign ideas upon our practice has long disappeared; like the traveller in the fable, there fore, we begin to wear our cloak a little more loosely. Then, with a long peace, the ideas of Europe steal gradually and amicably in, and mingle, though in infinitesimally small quantities at a time, with our own notions.Then, too, in spite of all that is said about the absorbing and brutalising influence of our passionate material progress, it seems to me indisputable that this progress is likely, though not certain, to lead in the end to an apparition of intellectual life; and that man, after he has made himself perfectly comfortable and has now to determine what to do with himself next, may begin to remember that he has a mind, and that the mind may be made the source of great pleasure. I grant it is mainly the privilege of faith, at present, to discern this end to our railways, our business, and our fortune? aking; but we shall see if, here as elsewhere, faith is not in the end the true prophet. Our ease, our travelling, and our un? bounded liberty to hold just as hard and secur ely as we please to the practice to which our notions have given birth, all tend to beget an inclination to deal a little more freely with these notions themselves, to canvass them a little, to penetrate a little into their real nature. Flutterings of curiosity, in the foreign sense of the word, appear amongst us, and it is in these that criticism must look to find its account.Criticism first; a time of true creative activity, perhaps, which, as I have said, must inevitably be preceded amongst us by a time of criticism, hereafter, when criticism has done its work. It is of the last importance that English criticism should clearly discern what rule for its course, in order to avail itself of the field now opening to it, and to pro? duce fruit for the future, it ought to take. The rule may be summed up in one word, disinterestedness. And how is criticism to show disinterestedness?By keeping aloof from practice; by resolutely following the law of its own nature, which is to be a free play of the mind on all subjects which it touches; by steadily refusing to lend itself to any of those ulterior, political, practical con? siderations about ideas which plenty of people will be sure to attach to them, which perhaps ought often to be attached to them, which in this country at any rate are certain to be attached to them quite sufficiently, but which criticism has really nothing to do with. Its busi? ess is, as I have said, simply to know the best that is known and thought in the world, and by in its turn making this known, to create a current of true and fresh ideas. Its business is to do this with inflexible honesty, with due ability; but its business is to do no more, and to leave alone all questions of practical consequences and applications, questions which will never fail to have due prominence given to them. Else criticism, besides being really false to its own nature, merely continues in the old rut which it has hitherto followed in this country, and will certa inly miss the chance now given to it.For what is at present the bane of criticism in this country? It is that practical considerations cling to it and stifle it; it subserves interests not its own; our organs of criticism are organs of men and parties having practical ends to serve, and with them those practical ends are the first thing and the play of mind the second; so much play of mind as is compatible with the prosecution of those prac? tical ends is all that is wanted. An organ like the Revue des Deux Mondes, having for its main function to under? tand and utter the best that is known and thought in the world, existing, it may be said, as just an organ for a` free play of the mind, we have not; but we have the Edinburgh Review, existing as an organ of the old Whigs, and for as much play of mind as may suit its being that; we have the Quarterly Review, existing as an organ of the Tories, and for as much play of mind as may suit its being that; we have the British Quarterly Revi ew, exist? ng as an organ of the political Dissenters, and for as much play of mind as may suit its being that; we have the Times, existing as an organ of the common, satisfied, well? to? do Englishman, and for as much play of mind as may suit its being that. And so on through all the various fractions, political and religious, of our society; every fraction has, as such, its organ of criticism, but the notion of combining all fractions in the common pleasure of a free disinterested play of mind meets with no favour.Directly this play of mind wants to have more scope, and to forget the pressure of practical considerations a little, it is checked, it is made to feel the chain; we saw this the other day in the extinction, so much to be regretted, of the Home and Foreign Review; perhaps in no organ of criticism in this country was there so much knowledge, so much play of mind; but these could not save it; the Dublin Review subordinates play of mind to the prac? tical business of Englis h and Irish Catholicism, and lives. It must needs be that men should act in sects and par? ies, that each of these sects and parties should have its organ, and should make this organ subserve the interests of its action; but it would be well, too, that there should be a criticism, not the minister of these interests, not their enemy, but absolutely and entirely THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 7 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME independent of them. No other criticism will ever attain any real authority or make any real way towards its end, the creating a current of true and fresh ideas.It is because criticism has so little kept in the pure intellectual sphere, has so little detached itself from practice, has been so directly polemical and controver? sial, that it has so ill accomplished, in this country, its best spiritual work; which is to keep man from a self? satisfaction which is retarding and vulgarising, to lead him towards perfection, by making his m ind dwell upon what is excellent in itself, and the absolute beauty and fitness of things. A polemical practical criticism makes men blind even to the ideal imperfection of their prac? ice, makes them willingly assert its ideal perfection, in order the better to secure it against attack; and clearly this is narrowing and baneful for them. If they were reassured on the practical side, speculative considera? tions of ideal perfection they might be brought to entertain, and their spiritual horizon would thus gra? dually widen. Adderley says to the Warwickshire farmers: â€Å"Talk of the improvement of breed! Why, the race we ourselves represent, the men and women, the old Anglo? Saxon race, are the best breed in the whole world. †¦The absence of a too enervating climate, too un? clouded skies, and a too luxurious nature, has produced so vigorous a race of people, and has rendered us so superior to all the world. † Mr. Roebuck says to the Sheffield cutlers: â€Å"I look aro und me and ask what is the state of England? Is not property safe? Is not every man able to say what he likes? Can you not walk from one end of England to the other in perfect security? I ask you whether, the world over or in past history, there is any? thing like it? Nothing. I pray that our unrivalled happiness may last. â€Å"Now obviously there is a peril for poor human nature in words and thoughts of such exuberant self? satisfaction, until we find ourselves safe in the streets of the Celestial City. â€Å"Das wenige verschwindet leicht deln Blicke Der vorwarts sieht, wie viel noch ubrig bleibt † says Goethe; the little that is done seems nothing when we look forward and see how much we have yet to do. Clearly this is a better line of reflection for weak humanity, so long as it remains on this earthly field of labour and trial. But neither Mr. Adderley nor Mr. Roebuck are by nature inaccessible to considerations of this sort.They only lose sight of them owing to the con troversial life we all lead, and the practical form which all specu? lation takes with us. They have in view opponents whose aim is not ideal, but practical, and in their zeal to uphold their own practice against these innovators, they go so far as even to attribute to this practice an ideal perfection. Somebody has been wanting to introduce a six? pound franchise, or to abolish church? rates, or to collect agricultural statistics by force, or to diminish local self? government. How natural, in reply to such pro? osals, very likely improper or ill? timed, to go a little beyond the mark, and to say stoutly: â€Å"Such a race of people as we stand, so superior to all the world! The old Anglo? Saxon race, the best breed in the whole world! I pray that our unrivalled happiness may last! I ask you whether, the world over or in past history, there is anything like it! † And so long as criticism answers this dithyramb by insisting that the old Anglo? Saxon race would be still more s uperior to all others if it had no church? rates, or that our unrivalled happiness would last yet longer with a six? ound franchise, so long will the strain, â€Å"The best breed in the whole world! † swell louder and louder, everything ideal and refining will be lost out of sight, and both the assailed and their critics will remain in a sphere, to say the truth, perfectly unvital, a sphere in which spiritual progression is impossible. But let criticism leave church? rates and the franchise alone, and in the most candid spirit, without a single lurking thought of practical innovation, confront with our dithyramb this paragraph on which I stumbled in a news? paper soon after reading Mr. Roebuck: A THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 8 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME shocking child murder has just been committed at Nottingham. A girl named Wragg left the workhouse there on Saturday morning with her young illegitimate child. The child was soon afterwards found dead on Mapperly Hills, having been strangled. Wragg is in custody. † Nothing but that; but, in juxtaposition with the absolute eulogies of Mr. Adderley and Mr. Roebuck, how elo? quent, how suggestive are those few lines! † Our old Anglo? Saxon breed, the best in the whole world! how much that is harsh and ill? favoured there is in this best! Wragg! If we are to talk of ideal perfection, of â€Å"the best in the whole world,† has anyone reflected what a touch of grossness in our race, what an original short? coming in the more delicate spiritual perceptions, is shown by the natural growth amongst us of such hideous names, Higginbottom, Stiggins, Bugg! In Ionia and Attica they were luckier in this respect than â€Å"the best race in the world;† by the Ilissus there was no Wragg, poor thing! And â€Å"our unrivalled happiness;† hat an element of grimness, bareness, and hideousness mixes with it and blurs it; the workhouse, the dismal Map? perly Hills, how dismal those who have seen them will remember; the gloom, the smoke, the cold, the strangled illegitimate child! † I ask you whether, the world over or in past history, there is anything like it? † Perhaps not, one is inclined to answer; but at any rate, in that case, the world is very much to be pitied. And the final touch, short, bleak, and inhuman: Wragg is in custody. The sex lost in the confusion of our unrivalled happiness; or, hall I say? the superfluous Christian name lopped off by the straightforward vigour of our old Anglo? Saxon breed! There is profit for the spirit in such contrasts as this; criticism serves the cause of perfection by esta? blishing them. By eluding sterile conflict, by refusing to remain in the sphere where alone narrow and relative conceptions have any worth and validity, criticism may diminish its momentary importance, but only in this way has it a chance of gaining admittance for those wider and more perfect conceptions to whic h all its duty is really owed. Mr.Roebuck will have a poor opinion of an adversary who replies to his defiant songs of triumph only by murmuring under his breath, Wragg is in custody; but in no other way will these songs of triumph be induced gradually to moderate themselves, to get rid of what in them is excessive and offensive, and to fall into a softer and truer key. It will be said that it is a very subtle and indirect action which I am thus prescribing for criticism, and that by embracing in this manner the Indian virtue of detach? ment and abandoning the sphere of practical life, it condemns itself to a slow and obscure work.Slow and obscure it may be, but it is the only proper work of criticism. The mass of mankind will never have any ardent zeal for seeing things as they are; very inadequate ideas will always satisfy them. On these inadequate ideas reposes, and must repose, the general practice of the world. That is as much as saying that whoever sets himself to see things a s they are will find himself one of a very small circle; but it is only by this small circle resolutely doing its own work that adequate ideas will ever get current at all.The rush and roar of practical life will always have a dizzying and attracting effect upon the most collected spectator, and tend to draw him into its vortex; most of all will this be the case where that life is so powerful as it is in England. But it is only by remaining collected, and refusing to lend himself to the point of view of the practical man, that the critic can do the practical man any service; and it is only by the greatest sincerity in pursuing his own course, and by at last convincing even the practical man of his sincerity, that he can escape misunderstandings which perpetually threaten him.For the practical man is not apt for fine distinctions, and yet in these distinctions truth and the highest culture greatly find their account. But it is not easy to lead a practical man, unless you reassure him as to your prac? tical intentions you have no chance of leading him, to see that a thing which he has always been used to look at from one side only, which he greatly values, and which, looked at from that side, more than deserves, perhaps, all the prizing and admiring which he bestows upon it, hat this thing, looked at from another side, may appear much less beneficent and beautiful, and yet retain all its claims to our practical allegiance. Where shall we find lan? guage innocent enough, how shall we make the spotless purity of our intentions evident enough, to enable us to say to the political Englishman that the British Constitu? tion itself, which, seen from the practical side, looks such a magnificent organ of progress and virtue, seen from the speculative side, with its compromises, its love of facts, its horror of theory, its studied avoidance of clear thoughts, hat, seen from this side, our august Consti? tution sometimes looks, forgive me, shade of Lord Somers! a colossal machine for the manufacture of Philistines? How is Cobbett to say this and not be mis? understood, blackened as he is with the smoke of a life? long conflict in the field of political practice? how is Mr. Carlyle to say it and not be misunderstood, after his THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 9 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME furious raid into this field with his Latter? ay Pamphlets how is Mr. Ruskin, after his pugnacious political economy? I say, the critic must keep out of the region of immediate practice in the political, social, humanitarian sphere, if he wants to make a beginning for that more free specu? lative treatment of things, which may perhaps one day make its benefits felt even in this sphere, but in a natural and thence irresistible manner. Do what he will, however, the critic will still remain exposed to frequent misunderstandings, and nowhere so much as in this country.For here people are particu? larly indisposed even to comprehend that wi thout this free disinterested treatment of things, truth and the highest culture are out of the question. So immersed are they in practical life, so accustomed to take all their notions from this life and its processes, that they are apt to think that truth and culture themselves can be reached by the processes of this life, and that it is an impertinent singularity to think of reaching them in any other. â€Å"We are all terr? ilii,† cries their eloquent advocate; â€Å"all Philistines together. Away with the notion of proceed? ing by any other course than the course dear to the Philistines; let us have a social movement, let us organise and combine a party to pursue truth and new thought, let us call it the liberal party, and let us all stick to each other, and back each other up. Let us have no nonsense about independent criticism, and intellectual delicacy, and the few and the many; don't let us trouble our? elves about foreign thought; we shall invent the whole thing fo r ourselves as we go along; if one of us speaks well, applaud him; if one of us speaks ill, applaud him too; we are all in the same movement, we are all liberals, we are all in pursuit of truth. † In this way the pursuit of truth becomes really a social, practical, pleasureable affair, almost requiring a chairman, a secretary, and advertisements; with the excitement of an occasional scandal, with a little resistance to give the happy sense of difficulty overcome; but, in general, plenty of bustle and very little thought.To act is so easy, as Goethe says; to think is so hard! It is true that the critic has many temptations to go with the stream, to make one of the party of movement, one of these terr? filii; it seems ungracious to refuse to be a terr? filius, when so many excellent people are; but the critic's duty is to refuse, or, if resistance is vain, at least to cry with Obermann: Perissons en resistant. How serious a matter it is to try and resist, I had ample opportunity of experiencing when I ventured some time ago to criticise the celebrated first volume of Bishop Colenso. The echoes of the storm which was then raised I still, from time to time, hear grumbling round me. That storm arose out of a misunderstanding almost inevitable. It is a result of no little culture to attain to a clear perception that science and religion are two wholly different things; the multitude will for ever con? fuse them, but happily that is of no great real im? portance, for while the multitude imagines itself to live by its false science, it does really live by its true religion.Dr. Colenso, however, in his first volume did all he could to strengthen the confusion, and to make it dangerous. * So sincere is my dislike to all personal attack and controversy, that I abstain from reprinting, at this distance of time from the occasion which called them forth, the essays in which I criticised the Bishop of Natal's book; I feel bound, however, after all that has passed, to m ake here a final declaration of my sincere impenitence for having published them.The Bishop of Natal's subsequent volumes are in great measure free from the crying fault of his first; he has at length succeeded in more clearly separating, in his own thoughts, the idea of science from the idea of religion; his mind appears to be opening as he goes along, and he may perhaps end by becoming a useful biblical critic, though never, I think, of the first order. Still, in here taking leave of him at the moment when he is pub? ishing, for popular use, a cheap edition of his work, I cannot forbear repeating yet once more, for his benefit and that of his readers, this sentence from my original remarks upon him: There is truth of science and truth of religion; truth of science does not become truth of religion till it is made religious. And I will add: Let us have all the science there is from the men of science; from the men of religion let us have religion. THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE P RESENT TIME 10THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME It has been said I make it â€Å"a crime against literary criticism * He did this with the best intentions, I freely admit, and with the most candid ignorance that this was the natural effect of what he was doing; but, says Joubert, â€Å"Igno? ance, which in matters of morals extenuates the crime, in itself, in intellectual matters, a crime of the first order. † I criticised Bishop Colenso's speculative confusion. Im? mediately there was a cry raised: â€Å"What is this? here a liberal attacking a liberal. Do not you belong to the movement? are not you a friend of truth?Is not Bishop Colenso in pursuit of truth? then speak with proper respect of his book. Dr. Stanley is another friend of truth, and you speak with proper respect of his book; why make these invidious differences? both books are excellent, admirable, liberal; Bishop Colenso's perhaps the most so, because it is the boldest, and will have the best prac tical consequences for the liberal cause. Do you want to encourage to the attack of a brother liberal his, and your, and our implacable enemies, the Church and State Review or the Record, the High Church rhinoceros and the Evangelical hy? na?Be silent, therefore; or rather speak, speak as loud as ever you can, and go into ecstasies over the eighty and odd pigeons. † But criticism cannot follow this coarse and indiscriminate method. It is unfortunately possible for a man in pur? suit of truth to write a book which reposes upon a false conception. Even the practical consequences of a book are to genuine criticism no recommendation of it, if the book is, in the highest sense, blundering. I see that a *and the higher culture to attempt to inform the ignorant. † Need I point out that the ignorant are not informed by being confirmed in a confusion? ady who herself, too, is in pursuit of truth, and who writes with great ability, but a little too much, perhaps, under the influen ce of the practical spirit of the English liberal movement, classes Bishop Colenso's book and M. Renan's together, in her survey of the religious state of Europe, as facts of the same order, works, both of them, of â€Å"great importance;† â€Å"great ability, power and skill;† Bishop Colenso's, perhaps, the most powerful; at least, Miss Cobbe gives special expression to her gratitude that to Bishop Colenso â€Å"has been given the strength to grasp, and the courage to teach truths of such deep import. In the same way, more than one popular writer has compared him to Luther. Now it is just this kind of false estimate which the critical spirit is, it seems to me, bound to resist. It is really the strongest possible proof of the low ebb at which, in England, the critical spirit is, that while the critical hit in the religious literature of Germany is Dr. Strauss's book, in that of France M. Renan's book, the book of Bishop Colenso is the critical hit in the religious li terature of England. Bishop Colenso's book reposes on a total misconcep? ion of the essential elements of the religious problem, as that problem is now presented for solution. To cri? ticism, therefore, which seeks to have the best that is known and thought on this problem, it is, however well meant, of no importance whatever. M. Renan's book attempts a new synthesis of the elements furnished to us by the four Gospels. It attempts, in my opinion, a synthesis, perhaps premature, perhaps impossible, cer? tainly not successful. Up to the present time, at any rate, we must acquiesce in Fleury's sentence on such recastings of the Gospel story : Quiconque s'imagine la pouvoir mieux ecrire, ne l'entend pas.M. Renan had himself passed by anticipation a like sentence on his own work, when he said: â€Å"If a new presentation of the character of Jesus were offered to me, I would not have it; its very clearness would be, in my opinion, the best proof of its insufficiency. † His friends may with perfect justice rejoin that at the sight of the Holy Land, and of the actual scene of the Gospel? story, all the current of M. Renan's thoughts may have naturally changed, and a new casting of that story irresistibly suggested itself to him; and that this is just a case for applying Cicero's maxim: Change of mind is not inconsistency emo doctus unquam mutationem consilii inconstantiam dixit esse. Nevertheless, for criticism, M. Renan's first thought must still be the truer one, as long as his new casting so fails more fully to commend itself, more fully (to use Coleridge's happy phrase about the Bible) to find us. Still M. Renan's attempt is, for criticism, of the most real interest and importance, since, with all its difficulty, a fresh synthesis of the New Testament data, ot a making war on them, in Voltaire's fashion, not a leaving them out of mind, in the world's fashion, but the putting a new construction upon them, the taking them from under the old, adoptive, traditi onal, un? spiritual point of view and placing them under a new one, is the very essence of the religious problem, as now presented; and only by efforts in this direction can it receive a solution. Again, in the same spirit in which she judges Bishop Colenso, Miss Cobbe, like so many earnest liberals of our THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 11THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME practical race, both here and in America, herself sets vigorously about a positive reconstruction of religion, about making a religion of the future out of hand, or at least setting about making it; we must not rest, she and they are always thinking and saying, in negative criti? cism, we must be creative and constructive; hence we have such works as her recent Religious Duty, and works still more considerable, perhaps, by others, which will be in everyone's mind.These works often have much ability; they often spring out of sincere convictions, and a sincere wish to do good; and they some times, perhaps, do good. Their fault is (if I may be permitted to say so) one which they have in common with the British College of Health, in the New Road. Everyone knows the British College of Health; it is that building with the lion and the statue of the Goddess Hygeia before it; at least, I am sure about the lion, though I am not absolutely certain about the Goddess Hygeia. This building does credit, perhaps, to the resources of Dr.Morrison and his disciples; but it falls a good deal short of one's idea of what a British College of Health ought to be. In England, where we hate public inter? ference and love individual enterprise, we have a whole crop of places like the British College of Health; the grand name without the grand thing. Unluckily, credit? able to individual enterprise as they are, they tend to impair our taste by making us forget what more grandiose, noble, or beautiful character properly belongs to a public institution. The same may be said of the religions of t he future of Miss Cobbe and others.Creditable, like the British College of Health, to the resources of their authors, they yet tend to make us forget what more grandiose, noble, or beautiful character properly belongs to religious constructions. The historic religions, with all their faults, have had this; it certainly belongs to the religious sentiment, when it truly flowers, to have this; and we impoverish our spirit if we allow a religion of the future without it. What then is the duty of criticism here? To take the practical point of view, to applaud the liberal movement and all its works, its New Road religions of the future into the bargain, or their general utility's sake? By no means; but to be perpetually dis? satisfied with these works, while they perpetually fall short of a high and perfect ideal. For criticism, these are elementary laws; but they never can be popular, and in this country they have been very little followed, and one meets with immense obstacles in followi ng them. That is a reason for asserting them again and again. Criticism must maintain its independence of the practical spirit and its aims. Even with well? meant efforts of the practical spirit it must express dissatisfaction, if in the sphere of the ideal they seem impoverishing and limiting.It must not hurry on to the goal because of its practical importance. It must be patient, and know how to wait; and flexible, and know how to attach itself to things and how to withdraw from them. It must be apt to study and praise elements that for the fulness of spiritual perfection are wanted, even though they belong to a power which in the prac? tical sphere may be maleficent. It must be apt to discern the spiritual shortcomings or illusions of powers that in the practical sphere may be beneficent. And this with? ut any notion of favouring or injuring, in the practical sphere, one power or the other; without any notion of playing off, in this sphere, one power against the other. When one l ooks, for instance, at the English Divorce Court, an institution which perhaps has its practical conveniences, but which in the ideal sphere is so hideous;* *A critic, already quoted, says that I have no right, on my own principles, to â€Å"object to practical measures on theoretical grounds,† and that only â€Å"when a man has got a theory which will fully explain all the duties of the legislator on the matter of marriage, will he have a right to abuse the Divorce Court. In short, he wants me to produce a plan for a new and improved Divorce Court, before I call the present one hideous. But God forbid that I should thus enter into competition with the Lord Chancellor! It is just this invasion of the practical sphere which is really against my principles; the taking a practical measure into the world of ideas, and seeing how it looks there, is, on the other hand, just what I am recom? mending. It is because we have not been conversant enough with ideas that our practice now falls so short; it is only by becoming more conversant with them that we shall make it better.Our present Divorce Court is not the result of any legislator's meditations on the subject of marriage; rich people had an anomalous privilege of getting divorced; privileges are odious, and we said everybody should have the same chance. There was no meditation about THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME 12 THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME marriage here; that was just the mischief. If my practical critic will but himself accompany me, for a little while, into the despised world of ideas; f, renouncing any attempt to patch hastily up, with a noble disdain for transcendentalists, our present Divorce law, he will but allow his mind to dwell a little, first on the Catholic idea of marriage, which exhibits marriage as indissoluble, and then upon that Protestant idea of marriage, which exhibits it as a union terminable by mutual consent, if he will meditate well on these, and afterwards on the thought of what married life, according to its idea, really is, of what family life really is, of what social life really is, and national life, and public morals, he will find, fter a while, I do assure him, the whole state of his* an institution which neither makes divorce impossible nor makes it decent, which allows a man to get rid of his wife, or a wife of her husband, but makes them drag one another first, for the public edification, through a mire of unutterable infamy, when one looks at this charming institution, I say, with its crowded benches, its newspaper? reports, and its money? compensations, this institution in which the gross unregenerate British Philis? tine has indeed stamped an image of himself, one may be permitted to find the marriage? heory of Catholicism refreshing and elevating. Or when Protestantism, in virtue of its supposed rational and intellectual origin, gives the law to criticism too magisterially, criticism may and must remind it t hat its pretensions, in this respect, are illusive and do it harm; that the Reformation was a moral rather than an intellectual event; that Luther's theory of grace no more exactly reflects the mind of the spirit than Bossuet's philosophy of history reflects it; and that there is no more antecedent probability of the Bishop of Durham's stock of ideas being agreeable to? erfect reason than of Pope Pius the Ninth's. But criticism will not on that account forget the achievements of Protestantism in the practical and moral sphere; nor that, even in the intellectual sphere, Protestantism, *spirit quite changed; the Divorce Court will then seem to him, if he looks at it, strangely hideous; and he will at the same time discover in himself, as the fruit of his inward discipline, lights and resources for making it better, of which now he does not dream.He must make haste, though, for the condition of his â€Å"practical measure† is getting awkward; even the British Philistine begins t o have qualms as he looks at his offspring; even his â€Å"thrice? battered God of Palestine† is beginning to roll its eyes convulsively. though in a blind and stumbling manner, carried for? ward the Renaissance, while Catholicism threw itself violently across its path. I lately heard a man of thought and energy contrasting the want of ardour and movement which he now found amongst young men in this country with what he re? membered in his own youth, twenty years ago. â€Å"What reformers we were then! he exclaimed; â€Å"what a zeal we had! how we canvassed every institution in Church and State, and were prepared to remodel them all on first principles! † He was inclined to regret, as a spiritual flagging, the lull which he saw. I am disposed rather to regard it as a pause in which the turn to a new mode of spiritual progress is being accomplished. Everything was long seen, by the young and ar